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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER CHAPTER 8 PERCEPTION 8-1 PART III: INTERNAL INFLUENCES PART 8-2 Consumer Behavior In The News… Consumer
Can you guess what is happening to advertising Can clutter on the internet? clutter Increasing Decreasing Staying the Same Source: A. Klaassen, “Some Respite for Consumers as Ad Clutter Clears on Web,” Advertising Age, October 27, 2008, p. 1/26. 8-3 Consumer Behavior In The News… Consumer
If you answered decreasing you were correct. If decreasing A recent ComScore study shows a 12 percent recent decrease. decrease. Trend Good for Marketers: A 15% boost in online Trend boost ads leads to a 10% decline in click-through. ads Nielson even has an online clutter metric which it sells to clients to help them manage this aspect. sells Source: A. Klaassen, “Some Respite for Consumers as Ad Clutter Clears on Web,” Advertising Age, October 27, 2008, p. 1/26. 8-4 The Nature of Perception The 8-5 Exposure Exposure
Types of Exposure
• Selective Exposure Selective
The highly selective nature of consumer exposure is a exposure major concern for marketers, since failure to gain exposure results in lost communication and sales exposure opportunities. 2.
• Voluntary Exposure Voluntary
Although consumers often avoid commercials and other marketing stimuli, sometimes they actively seek them out for various reasons including purchase goals, entertainment, and information.
8-6 Exposure Exposure
Selective Exposure and DVRs DVRs in 20% of U.S. Households DVR may increase ad avoidance although evidence DVR is mixed is Strategies to adapt in a DVR world Ad compression Still-frame ads Hybrid ads Interactive ads
8-7 Attention Attention
Attention is determined by three factors: Attention 1.
• Stimulus Factors Stimulus
Are physical characteristics of the stimulus itself 2.
• Individual Factors Individual
Are characteristics which distinguish one individual from another 3.
• Situational Factors Situational
Include stimuli in the environment other than the focal stimulus and temporary characteristics of the individual that are induced by the environment
8-8 Attention Attention
Stimulus Factors Size Intensity Attractive Visuals Color and Movement Position Isolation Format Contrast and Expectations Interestingness Information Quantity
8-9 Attention Attention
Stimulus Factors: A Closer Look
Color and Movement Color and movement attract attention. A brightly colored package or display is more likely to received attention. Color and movement are also important in ads.
Source: 1”How Important is Color to an Ad?” Starch Tested Copy. February 1989, p.1. Roper Starch Worldwide, Inc. Color and Size Impact on Color Attention1 Attention 8-10 Attention Attention
Stimulus Factors: A Closer Look
Position Position is the placement of an object in physical space or time. In retail stores, items that are easy to find or stand out are more likely to attract attention, such as end-caps and kiosks. High impact zones in print ads in the U.S. tend to be toward the top left portion of the ad.
End-caps provide a way to End-caps capture the shopper’s attention capture
8-11 Attention Attention
Stimulus Factors: A Closer Look
Contrast and Expectations Consumers pay more attention to stimuli that contrast with their background. Expectations drive perceptions of contrast. Ads that differ from expectations for a product category often motivate more attention. Adaptation level theory suggests that if a stimulus doesn’t change over time we habituate to it and begin to notice it less.
This billboard ad provides This contrast for enhanced attention. contrast 8-12 Attention Attention
Individual Factors Motivation Ability 8-13 Attention Attention
Situational Factors Clutter Program Involvement 8-14 Attention Attention
Situational Factors: A Closer Look Situational
Program involvement refers to interest in the program or editorial content surrounding the ads. Program involvement has a positive influence on attention (see graph).
Source: 1”Cahners Advertising Research Report 120.1 and 120.12 (Boston: Cahners Publishing, undated). 8-15 Attention Attention
Nonfocused Attention Hemispheric lateralization Subliminal Stimuli 8-16 Attention Attention
Hemispheric Lateralization refers to activities that take place on Hemispheric each side of the brain. The left side of the The left brain controls activities related to rational thought. rational The right side of The right the brain deals with images and impressions. impressions. 8-17 Attention Attention
Subliminal Stimuli A message presented so fast, softly or masked by other messages that one is not aware of seeing or hearing it is call a subliminal stimulus. subliminal A subliminal ad “hides” key persuasive information within the ad by making it so weak that it is difficult or impossible for someone to physically detect. Subliminal advertising has been the focus of intense study and public concern. 8-18 Interpretation Interpretation
Three aspects of interpretation:
1. It is generally a relative process rather than absolute, referred to as perceptual relativity. perceptual 1. It tends to be subjective and open to a host of psychological biases. 1. It can be a cognitive “thinking” process or an affective “emotional” process.
• • Cognitive interpretation is a process whereby stimuli are placed into existing categories of meaning. Affective interpretation is the emotional or feeling response triggered by a stimulus such as an ad.
8-19 Interpretation Interpretation
Interpretation is determined by three Characteristics : Interpretation 1. 2. 3. Individual Characteristics Individual Situational Characteristics Situational Stimulus Characteristics Stimulus 8-20 Interpretation Interpretation
Individual Characteristics Traits Learning and Knowledge Expectations 8-21 Interpretation Interpretation
Physiological and psychological traits drive our needs and desires. These traits influence how a stimulus is interpreted. Physiologically
Consumers differ in their sensitivity to stimuli, e.g., taste. Psychologically
Consumers have natural cognitive, emotional, and behavioral predispositions, e.g., affect intensity. 8-22 Interpretation Interpretation
Learning and Knowledge The meanings attached to such “natural” things as time, space, relationships, and colors are learned and vary widely across cultures. Consumers also learn about marketer-created stimuli like brands and promotions through their experiences with them. Color is used in the Wrigley’s ad Color to mean “icy and cool.” to 8-23 Interpretation Interpretation
Expectations Interpretations tend to be consistent with expectations, an effect referred to as the expectation bias. Consumers often evaluate the performance of a well-known brand as higher than that of an identical product with an unknown brand name. Brands create expectations and Brands can thus bias perceptions. can 8-24 Interpretation Interpretation
Situational Characteristics The situation provides a context within which the focal stimulus is interpreted. The Contextual cues present in the situation play a role in consumer interpretation independent of the actual stimulus. 8-25 Interpretation Interpretation
Stimulus Characteristics Traits Organization Proximity Closure Figure-Ground Changes Sensory Discrimination JND
8-26 Applications in Consumer Behavior Applications
Stimulus Characteristics: A Closer Look
Traits This McDonald’s This billboard is designed like a clock and is “interpreted” as telling consumers when it is “time” for various McDonald’s products. McDonald’s
©Christopher Kerrigan 8-27 Interpretation Interpretation
Consumer Inferences Quality Signals Interpreting Images Missing Information and Ethical Concerns 8-28 Perception and Marketing Strategy Perception Retail Strategy Brand Name and Logo Development
• • • Linguistic Consideration Branding Strategies Logo Design and Typographics Media Strategy Advertisements Package Design and Labeling 8-29 Video Application The following Video Clip demonstrates The the power of visual imagery through brand logos. brand
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UZZqB_TV5UM 8-30 ...
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