Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER CHAPTER 9 LEARNING, LEARNING, MEMORY, AND PRODUCT POSITIONING POSITIONING 9-1 Consumer Behavior In The News… Consumer
Can a brand make consumers more creative? To find Can out: out: Three groups were flashed a different computer Three brand logo and then asked to write down all the uses of a brick they could think of. uses Which computer logo generated the most creativity Which (more uses for a brick)? (more No Brand (control group) IBM Apple
Source: B. S. Bulik, “This Brand Makes You More Creative,” Advertising Age, March 24, 2008, p. 4 9-2 Consumer Behavior In The News… Consumer
If you said Apple you are correct. The number of uses If for a brick were as follows: for Apple: 7.5 Apple: 7.5 No Brand (control group): 6 No IBM: 5 IBM: Why? Brand image (e.g., creativity) may prime a trait that taps our self image and affects our behaviors. that Note: Flash was 30 milliseconds or subliminal and thus participants didn’t know Note: or see the brand logo, preventing conscious biasing of effort, etc. or
Source: B. S. Bulik, “This Brand Makes You More Creative,” Advertising Age, March 24, 2008, p. 4 9-3 The Nature of Learning and Memory The 9-4 Memory’s Role in Learning Memory’s
Memory consists of two interrelated components:
• Short-term Memory (STM) a.k.a. working memory Short-term
is that portion of total memory that is currently activated or in use. 2.
• Long-term Memory (LTM) Long-term
is that portion of total memory devoted to permanent information storage. • • Semantic memory is the basic knowledge and feelings an individual has about a concept. Episodic memory is the memory of a sequence of events in which a person participated.
9-5 Memory’s Role in Learning Memory’s
Short-Term Memory STM is Short Lived
• Consumers must constantly refresh information through maintenance rehearsal or it will be lost. maintenance Consumers can only hold so much information in current memory. Elaborative activities serve to redefine or add new elements to memory and can involve both concepts concepts and imagery. imagery
9-6 STM has Limited Capacity
• Elaborative Activities Occur in STM
• Applications in Consumer Behavior Applications Duracell’s unique ad placement is a perfect example of imagery designed to enhance elaborative activities regarding the brand. Courtesy Ogilvy & Mather Kuala Lumpur 9-7 Memory’s Role in Learning Memory’s
Long-Term Memory Schemas (a.k.a. schematic memory) Scripts Retrieval from LTM 9-8 Memory’s Role in Learning Memory’s
A Partial Schematic Memory for Mountain Dew 9-9 Learning Under High and Low Involvement Learning 9-10 Learning Under High and Low Involvement Learning
Classical conditioning is the process of using an established relationship between one stimulus (music) and response (pleasant feelings) to bring about the learning of the same response (pleasant feelings) to a different stimulus (the brand). 9-11 Learning Under High and Low Involvement Learning
Operant conditioning (or instrumental learning) involves rewarding desirable behaviors such as brand purchases with a positive outcome that serves to reinforce the behavior. 9-12 Learning Under High and Low Involvement Learning
Shaping Can Be Used in Operant Conditioning 9-13 Learning Under High and Low Involvement Learning
1. 2. 3. Iconic Rote Learning Iconic Vicarious Learning/Modeling Vicarious Analytical Reasoning Analytical 9-14 Learning Under High and Low Involvement Learning 9-15 Learning, Memory, and Retrieval Learning,
Marketers want consumers to learn and remember positive features, feelings, and behaviors associated with their brands.
What happens when consumers forget? forget Conditioned Learning
Extinction Desired response decays or dies out if not reinforced. Cognitive Learning
Retrieval Failure Information that is available in LTM cannot be retrieved.
9-16 Learning, Memory, and Retrieval Learning,
Forgetting over Time: Magazine Advertisement Source: LAP Report #5260.1 (New York: Weeks McGraw-Hill, undated). Reprinted with permission from McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 9-17 Learning, Memory, and Retrieval Learning, Strength of Learning Memory Interference Response Environment 9-18 Learning, Memory, and Retrieval Learning,
Strength of Learning Strength of learning is enhanced by six factors: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Importance Importance Message Involvement Message Mood Mood Reinforcement Reinforcement Repetition Repetition Dual Coding Dual
9-19 Learning, Memory, and Retrieval Learning,
Impact of Repetition on Brand Awareness for High- and Low-Awareness Brands Source: A Study of the effectiveness of Advertising Frequency in Magazines, 1993 Time, Inc. Reprinted by permission. 9-20 Learning, Memory, and Retrieval Learning,
Repetition Timing and Advertising Recall Source: Reprinted from H. J. Zielski, “The Remembering and Forgetting of Advertising,” Journal of Marketing, January 1959, p. 240, with permission from The American Marketing Association. The actual data and a refined analysis were presented in J. L. Simon, “What Do Zielski’s Data Really Show about Pulsing?” Journal of Marketing Research, August 1979, pp. 415-20. 9-21 Learning, Memory, and Retrieval Learning,
Memory interference occurs when consumers have difficulty retrieving a specific piece of information because other related information in memory gets in the way. A common form of interference in marketing is due to competitive advertising. Competitive advertising makes it harder for consumers to recall any given advertisement and its contents.
9-22 Learning, Memory, and Retrieval Learning,
What Can Marketers Do to Decrease What Competitive Interference? Competitive
Avoid Competing Advertising Strengthen Initial learning Reduce Similarity to Competing Ads Provide External Retrieval Cues
9-23 Brand Image and Product Positioning Brand
Brand image refers to the schematic memory of a brand.
Perceived Product Perceived Attributes Attributes Manufacturer Manufacturer Marketer Marketer Characteristics Characteristics Benefits Brand Image Users Usage Situations 9-24 Brand Image and Product Positioning Brand
Product positioning is a decision by a marketer to try to achieve a defined brand image relative to competition within a market segment. An important component of brand image is the appropriate usage situations for the product or brand. Perceptual mapping offers marketing managers a useful technique for measuring and developing a product’s position. 9-25 Brand Image and Product Positioning Brand
Perceptual Map for Chocolate Candy 9-26 Brand Image and Product Positioning Brand
Product repositioning refers to a deliberate decision to significantly alter the way the market views a product. This can involve level of performance the feelings it evokes the situations in which it should be used, or who uses the product 9-27 Brand Equity and Brand Leverage Brand
Brand equity is the value consumers assign to a brand above and beyond the functional characteristics of the product. Brand leverage, often termed family branding, brand extensions, or umbrella branding, refers to marketers extensions, capitalizing on brand equity by using an existing brand name for new products. 9-28 ...
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- Spring '10
- Marketing, Brand, Low involvement learning, Retrieval Learning