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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER CHAPTER 10 MOTIVATION, MOTIVATION, PERSONALITY, AND EMOTION AND 10-1 Consumer Behavior In The News… Consumer
Promoting a car that doesn’t exist? That’s right! Audi created an ad for the RSQ, a futuristic car Audi featured in the movie “I, Robot.” featured What possessed Audi to do this? Source: J. Halliday, “Audi effort features nonexistent vehicle,” Advertising Age, May 17, 2004, p. 152. 10-2 Consumer Behavior In The News… Consumer
Promoting a car that doesn’t exist? What possessed Audi to do this? In a word – PERSONALITY! Audi execs feel it speaks to Audi’s core Audi strengths including: strengths “cool styling, sophistication, sportiness…” Source: J. Halliday, “Audi effort features nonexistent vehicle,” Advertising Age, May 17, 2004, p. 152. 10-3 The Nature of Motivation The
Motivation is the reason for behavior. A motive is a construct representing an unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioral response and provides specific direction to that response. There are numerous theories of motivation, and many of them offer useful insights for the marketing manager. 10-4 The Nature of Motivation The
Two useful motivation theories:
• Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow’s
A macro theory designed to account for most human behavior in general terms. 2.
• McGuire’s Psychological Motives McGuire’s
A fairly detailed set of motives used to account for specific aspects of consumer behavior. 10-5 Nature of Motivation Nature
McGuire’s Psychological Motives 1. Cognitive Preservation Motives
Need for Consistency (active, internal) Need for Attribution (active, external) Attribution Theory Need to Categorize (passive, internal) Need for Objectification (passive, external) 10-6 Nature of Motivation Nature
McGuire’s Psychological Motives 2. Cognitive Growth Motives
Need for Autonomy (active, internal) Need for Stimulation (active, external) Teleological Need (passive, internal) Utilitarian Need (passive, external) 10-7 Nature of Motivation Nature
McGuire’s Psychological Motives 3. Affective Preservation Motives
Need for Tension Reduction (active, internal) Need for Expression (active, external) Need for Ego Defense (passive, internal) Need for Reinforcement (passive, external) 10-8 Nature of Motivation Nature
McGuire’s Psychological Motives 4. Affective Growth Motives
Need for Assertion (active, internal) Need for Affiliation (active, external) Need for Identification (passive, internal) Need for Modeling (passive, external) 10-9 Applications in Consumer Behavior Applications
The Mercedes-Benz ad provides an excellent example of targeting women high in need for assertion assertion They are competitive achievers, seeking success, admiration, and dominance. Important to them are power, accomplishment, and esteem. Courtesy Mercedes Benz USA, Inc. 10-10 Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Motivation
Latent and Manifest Motives in a Purchase Situation 10-11 Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Motivation
Hedonic Shopping Motives
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Adventure Shopping Adventure Social Shopping Social Gratification Shopping Gratification Idea Shopping Idea Role Shopping Role Value Shopping Value 10-12 Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Motivation
Marketing Strategies Based on Motivation Conflict Three types of motivational conflict:
1. • 2. • 3. • Approach-Approach Motivational Conflict Approach-Approach A choice between two attractive alternatives Approach-Avoidance Motivational Conflict Approach-Avoidance A choice with both positive and negative consequences Avoidance-Avoidance Motivational Conflict Avoidance-Avoidance A choice involving only undesirable outcomes 10-13 Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Motivation
A Regulatory Focus Approach to Motivation 10-14 Personality Personality
Personality is an individual’s characteristic response tendencies across similar situations. While motivations are the motivations energizing and directing force that makes consumer behavior consumer purposeful and goal directed, the personality of the consumer guides personality and directs the behavior chosen to accomplish goals in different situations.
10-15 Personality Personality
• Multitrait Approach Multitrait
The Five-Factor Model is the most commonly used by marketers and identifies five basic traits that are formed by genetics and early learning. 2.
• • • Single Trait Approach Single
Consumer Ethnocentrism Need for Cognition Consumers’ Need for Uniqueness 10-16 Personality Personality
The Five-Factor Model of Personality 10-17 Personality Personality
Examples of Single-Trait Theories Vanity Trait Trait Anxiety Anxiety Locus of Locus Control Control Sensation Sensation Seeking Seeking Compulsive Compulsive Buying Buying Materialism Affect Affect Intensity Intensity SelfSelfMonitoring Monitoring 10-18 Personality Personality
Three additional traits:
1. Consumer Ethnocentrism Consumer • Reflects an individual difference in consumers’ propensity to be biased against the purchase of foreign products. 2. Need for Cognition (NFC) Need • Reflects an individual difference in consumers’ propensity to engage in and enjoy thinking. 3. Consumers’ Need for Uniqueness Consumers’ • Reflects an individual difference in consumers’ propensity to pursue differentness relative to others through the acquisition, utilization, and disposition of consumer goods.
10-19 The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Practice
Other times, Other consumers use products to bolster an area of their personality where they feel weak. they Sometimes Sometimes consumers choose products that fit their personality. their 10-20 The Use of Personality in Marketing The Practice Practice
Brand image is what people think of and feel Brand when they hear or see a brand name. Brand personality is a set of human Brand characteristics that become associated with a brand and are a particular type of image that some brands acquire. 10-21 The Use of Personality in marketing Practice Practice
Dimensions of Brand Personality 10-22 The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Practice
Communicating Brand Personality Three important advertising tactics:
1. 2. 3. Celebrity Endorsers Celebrity User Imagery User Executional Factors Executional 10-23 Emotion Emotion
Emotion is the identifiable specific feeling, and affect is the liking/disliking aspect of the specific feeling. Emotions are strong, relatively uncontrolled feelings that affect behavior. They are strongly linked to needs, motivation, and personality. Unmet needs create motivation which is related to the arousal component of emotion. Personality also plays a role, e.g., some people are more emotional than others, a consumer trait referred to as affect intensity. affect 10-24 Emotion Emotion
Nature of Emotions Source: Adapted with permission from M. B. Holbrook and R. Batra, “Assessing the Role of Emotions on Consumer Response to Advertising,” Journal of Consumer Research, December 1987, pp. 404-20. Copyright © 1987 by the University of Chicago. 10-25 Emotion Emotion
Dimensions of Emotion Pleasure Arousal Dominance 10-26 Emotions and Marketing Strategy Emotions Emotion Arousal as a Product Benefit • Consumers actively seek products whose primary or secondary benefit is emotion arousal. Emotion Reduction as a Product Benefit • Marketers design or position many products to prevent or reduce the arousal of unpleasant emotions. 10-27 Emotions and Marketing Strategy Emotions Consumer Coping in Product and Service Encounters Active coping Expressive support seeking Avoidance 10-28 Emotions and Marketing Strategy Emotions Emotion in Advertising Emotional content in ads can enhance attention, attraction, and maintenance capabilities. Emotional messages may be processed more thoroughly due to their enhanced level of arousal. Emotional ads may enhance liking of the ad itself. Repeated exposure to positive-emotion-eliciting ads may increase brand preference through classical conditioning. Emotion may operate via high-involvement processes especially if emotion is decision relevant.
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