Chpt. 2 Expansion of Cinema

Chpt. 2 Expansion of Cinema - Expansion of the Cinema and...

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Expansion of the Cinema and the Rise of Narrative Film (1908–1919) State of the U.S. Film Industry in 1908 A full-scale, though not yet respectable, industry Main tendency: centralization and standardization of production practices Division of labor: directing, acting, photographing, lab work Production of Films (1908–1913) High demand About 20 production companies turned out 1 or 2 one-reel films per director per week One reel = 10 to 16 minutes Still followed stagebound conventions and primitive continuity editing General Lawlessness Social Darwinism of the Gilded Age Knock-off Edison cameras Copyright problems Industrial espionage The Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC) Formed in 1908 to ensure the continued dominance of the market by the strongest international companies o Edison, Biograph, Vitagraph, Essanay, Kalem, Selig Polyscope, Lubin, Star Film, Pathé Frères, and Kleine Optical (General Film Co. was added in 1910) Pooled 16 of the most significant U.S. patents for motion picture technology Exclusive contract with Eastman-Kodak for raw film stock Con : clearly monopolistic Pro : helped stabilize the American film industry during a period of growth Resistance to the MPPC Independent producers and distributors formed their own trade organization Mimicked the MPPC’s business practices Netted roughly 40% of all U.S. film business Why the indies ultimately succeeded: o embraced the feature film
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o developed the star system o moved production to Hollywood, California Advent of the Feature Film Feature film = four or more reels General acceptance in U.S. 1911–1913
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Chpt. 2 Expansion of Cinema - Expansion of the Cinema and...

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