principalship vision to action ppt

principalship vision to action ppt - The Principalship:...

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Unformatted text preview: The Principalship: Vision to Action Fred C. Lunenberg Beverly J. Irby Table of Contents Table of Contents (Click chapter title to navigate) Chapter 1: Cultivating Community, Culture and Lear Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning Chapter 5: Professional Development Chapter 6: Student Services Chapter 7: Organizational Structures Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implement Table of Contents (cont’d) (Click chapter title to navigate) Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication Chapter 10: The Principal and Change Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools Chapter 13: Human Resource Management Chapter 14: Community Relations Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context Chapter 1: Cultivating Community, Culture and Learning Community Culture Learning Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning Interstate School Leaders Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) Standards for School Leaders ► Review the language of the seven standards in your text book ► Re­write each in “plain” English ► Discuss the purpose of each standard; i.e. Why would the Consortium consider this a valuable standard? Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning The Role of the Principal The Role of the Principal ► Historically: Principal Assistant principal Dean of Students Assistant principal Administrative Staff A NEW APPROACH Assistant principal Counselors Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning LEADING FROM THE CENTER students community PRINCIPAL staff parents teachers Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning ► Historic Compare and Contrast the Historic Compare and Contrast the Historic Approach to the New Approach Principal rules top­down Leadership dispersed according to authority A “power over” approach Principal is the leader ► New Briefly discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. What factors might have contributed to the shifting paradigm? Principal works collaboratively Leadership dispersed according to competence A “power to” approach Principal is the leader of leaders Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning ► Create a mission statement: Why does the Creating a Professional Learning Creating a Professional Learning Community school exist? What is its purpose? ► Develop a vision: What does the school wish to become? ► How can schools avoid the following? tradition of isolation OL NT OE CH EM SV RO MP I Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning ► Develop value statements: What attitudes Creating a Professional Learning Community (cont’d) and behaviors do stakeholders value and which will teachers pledge to demonstrate? ► Establish Goals: Concrete evidence of implementation of school improvement Influenced by a district’s administrators Reflect a desired end result BENEFITS TO SETTING Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning Setting clearly defined goals benefits all Setting clearly defined goals benefits all stakeholders by fostering… ► Commitment: individuals have a personal stake in outcomes ► Standards: enable principals to analyze performance objectively ► Targets: give individuals a concrete outcome, rather than a subjective one ► Motivation: encourages individuals to perform at highest levels Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning ► A properly conceived vision serves as a What is the practical application What is the practical application of the vision setting process? filter for the myriad of daily decisions a principal is asked to make. be t can Wha out ne ab ? do ies ruanc t Wh a do t sho a u tes bout ld we t sc p ore oor s? ld I ou sh r. w Ho dle M s ’ han nson iew? v Joh rly re yea V I S I O N Decisions that benefit all stakeholders in an ethical and fair manner Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning ► What is culture? Developing a Culture Developing a Culture The most common characteristics of norms culture: observed behavioral regularities dominant values CULTURE feelings rules philosophy Consider heroes and heroines, traditions and rituals, and cultural networks Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning Maintaining School Culture Maintaining School Culture 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Hire staff carefully Train staff in desired school culture Instruct staff in technical aspects of job Reward staff for performances that reflect the values of the culture Adhere closely to values of the culture Reinforce rites and rituals of culture Identify and make available staff to serve as role models Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning The Principal as Instructional Leader The Principal as Instructional Leader The focus on results, the focus on student achievement, the focus on students learning at high levels ­ can only happen if teaching and learning become the central focus of the school and the central focus of the principal (Blase & Blase, 2003; Castallo, 2001; Lambert, 2003). Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning ►Focus on learning: What is the Shift instruction from teaching to Shift instruction from teaching to learning… difference between teaching and learning? What questions do you need to consider to facilitate this shift? ►Encourage Collaboration: Why is collaboration beneficial? ►Analyze Results: What type of data should be disaggregated and into what categories? Chapter 1: Cultivating Culture, Community and Learning ►Provide Support: What training do Shift instruction from teaching to Shift instruction from teaching to learning… teachers need to facilitate this shift? What would the outcome of this support and shift look like in the classroom? ►Align Curriculum, Instruction, and Assessment: How does this reflect NCLB? Despite criticisms of “teaching to a test,” what are the clear benefits to an assessment driven curriculum? Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff. Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning Gaining a Perspective on the Gaining a Perspective on the Vision: Considering the Future E ► In addition to critical thinking and IBL NS imagination, the following factors must be PO S ES considered in creating a vision: GE Y R LEN LL LL E A IA L The Global Society (poverty, race, gender, AT O C N CHA S UC A assimilation, etc.) IO ED VIS LS TO EN Challenges in Learning (underachieving IPA HILDR minority groups, physical and mental abuse, I NC C PR other sources of “education”) Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning ► Basic tenants of the No Child Left Behind Bringing the Vision Home to the Bringing the Vision Home to the School Culture Act of 2001: Schools are accountable for achievement of ALL students Schools must hire highly qualified teachers Schools implement research­based programs and practices How do these criteria impact how you would create a vision for your school? Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning The Systemic Vision The Systemic Vision ► Contextual AND dependent upon relationships: MISSION AND GOALS ACCOMPLISHED District Vision, Mission, and Goals Motivated Students Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values (of the leader, faculty, staff, and community) Relationships Built Deeper Understanding of Individuals and the Organization Campus Vision, Mission, and Goals Collaboratively Developed Action Plan for Accomplishing Goals Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning Creating a Vision Creating a Vision The principal must consider: 1. Where has the school been? 2. Where is the school currently? 3. Where should the school be in the future? How do the conditions listed in figure 2­2 help a principal grow a vision? What roles do personal beliefs, values, and attitudes play in this growth? Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning A leadership framework should include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Philosophy of education Philosophy of leadership Vision for learners Vision for teachers Vision of organization Vision of professional growth Method of vision attainment The Leadership Framework as a The Leadership Framework as a Doorway to Creating a Vision Why is the leadership framework a useful tool for creating a vision? Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning Shepherding the Vision Shepherding the Vision BEWARE OF… Tradition Scorn Nay­Sayers Complacency Weariness Short­range thinking Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning Shepherding the Vision (cont’d) Shepherding the Vision (cont’d) Encourage… Building ownership in the vision Thinking of the long­term benefits Seeking input from stakeholders Building confidence in stakeholders Staying with the vision Staying focused Keeping stakeholders alert to any changes Demonstrating how focus results in efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning Mission Statements vs. Mission Statements vs. Goal Statements Goal Statements ► Break the mission and vision down into specific and measurable steps ► The tangible results a school is trying to achieve ► Guided by the mission and vision Mission Statements ► State the purpose of the school, both generally and specifically ► Guide decision­making processes ► Guided by the vision and explain how it will be obtained Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning Creating Goals to Obtain a Vision Creating Goals to Obtain a Vision ► Consider the hierarchy of goals: A means­ end analysis can help a principal prioritize and organize goals What is necessary for the hierarchy shown in figure 2­3 to operate cohesively in order to achieve a stated vision? Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning What Makes an Effective Goal? What Makes an Effective Goal? ► Clarity and specificity ► Time frame ► Key areas ► Challenging but realistic ► Linked to rewards Why are these criteria needed for a goal to be considered “effective”? Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning The Goal Setting Process The Goal Setting Process Setting Goals Revise and Update Developing Action Plans Recycle Monitoring Performance Revise and Update Evaluating Results Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning Common Problems with Goal Common Problems with Goal Setting ► Lack of top­management support ► Time­consuming ► Excessive paperwork ► Administrative style ► Overemphasis on quantitative goals ► Prepackaged programs How would you overcome each of these obstacles? Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning Tips for Effective Goal Setting Tips for Effective Goal Setting ► Develop a specific organizational structure ► Create a positive leadership climate ► Train principals ► Maintain the means­ends chain of goals ► Emphasize periodic feedback sessions Once goals have been set, the principal must determine HOW they will be obtained. This leads to… Chapter 2: Creating a Vision for Learning Developing Plans for Attaining Developing Plans for Attaining Goals Operational plans are developed at the Standing plans are predetermined Strategic plans define the means by Tactical plans are designed to lower levels of the district to specify the which the goals of the school are to means toward achieving operational be attained goals and supporting tactical planning activities statements that help decision makers help execute strategic plans and handle repetitive situations in a to accomplish a specific part of consistent manner the district’s strategy Operational Plan Standing Plans Operational Plan Standing Plans Operational Plan Standing Plans Operational Plan Standing Plans Tactical Plan Strategic Plan Tactical Plan Time Frame for Plans Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff. Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation Concepts and Models of Concepts and Models of Curriculum ► Consider the traditional concepts and models of curriculum outlined in the first 15 pages of chapter 3. ► Which of these do you most closely align yourself? Why? What different visions and goals would emerge from each of these models? ► Now, let’s look at some more modern curriculum models… Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation ► Most have an emphasis on “interdisciplinary Modern Models of Curriculum Modern Models of Curriculum courses, open­ended systems, intergenerational and inter­professional relationships, Socratic dialogue, multi­ dimensional assessments, and multiculturalism” (McNabb, 1995). ► Most are open educational systems ► Consider the above statements and the late 20th century definitions of curriculum in your textbook. How do modern models of curriculum reflect today’s society? A closer look… Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation The Irby and Lunenberg Model The Irby and Lunenberg Model Curriculum must be: Led by the principal but developed collaboratively Considerate of the community Responsive to student needs Connected to vision and mission of the school Reflective of the needs of a global society Able to be assessed in terms of student performance Integrated systematically Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation The Ornstein Model The Ornstein Model Systemic approach: recognizes that the actions within the organization impact curriculum decisions ► 7 categories to the model: ► 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Political Forces Knowledge Industry External Groups Content Instructional Activities Evaluation Supervision of Curriculum Examine Figure 3­6. How do these 7 categories interact to create a model of curriculum? Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation The Eisner Model The Eisner Model ► 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Five dimensions needed for successful schools: The Intentional The Structural The Curriculum The Pedagogical The Evaluative What is meant by each of these dimensions and how could they work together to create successful schools? Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation Relationship of Curriculum to Relationship of Curriculum to Instruction ► Functions of a Curriculum Plan To produce a curriculum for an identifiable population To implement the curriculum in a specific school To appraise the effectiveness of the curriculum developed Read the 15 characteristics identified by Tomlinson and Allan. Why must a principal take these characteristics into consideration in order to make positive changes to the curriculum? Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation ► While the principal does not need to provide ALL The Principal as the Curriculum The Principal as the Curriculum and Instructional Leader of the curriculum leadership, the most effective ones collect information and use it to facilitate curriculum development ► In order to share the responsibility for curriculum leadership a principal should: Allow teachers to take responsibility for curriculum Arrange schedule to give teachers time to work on curriculum Provide staff development Provide resources Create a community of learners (see Figure 13­9) Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation Curriculum Goals and Curriculum Goals and Instructional Objectives To achieve teacher and staff “buy­in” a principal needs to offer: ► Curriculum Goals = ► Instructional Objectives = 1. Data that support the need for change broad, general required performance, 2. Information that supports the changes in similar contexts statements to help conditions for behavior, develop programs of and level of performance 3. Connection between goals and achievement measures What the student actually instruction 4. Focus on usability, simplicity, and effectiveness DOES What you WANT the 5. Clear relationships between changes and the vision students to do 6. Opportunities for teachers and staff to participate in goal and objective creation Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation Curriculum Goals and Curriculum Goals and Instructional Objectives (cont’d) Classifying objectives Cognitive 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ► Psychomotor 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Affective 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Receiving Responding Valuing Organization Characterization Reflex movements Basic­fundamental movements Perceptual abilities Physical abilities Skilled movements Non­discursive communication REMEMBER: OBJECTIVES MUST CORRELATE WITH THE CURRICULUM Refer to the 7 principles for selecting learning experiences to ensure that they foster active involvement in the learning process Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation Developing a Needs Assessment Developing a Needs Assessment Why a needs assessment? Assists with developing or revising curriculum and assessment Ensures a dynamic and responsive curriculum Gives teachers information about learners At the curriculum level, a needs assessment includes a(n): 1. Review and analysis of standards 2. Review of curriculum from successful districts 3. Interview of students, teachers, and parents 4. Review of current students’ work 5. Review of related literature and best practices ► ► Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation Aligning the Curriculum Aligning the Curriculum ► After a needs assessment, curriculum alignment shows WHAT will be taught in all subject areas and at each grade level ► Curriculum mapping provides scope and sequence of WHEN skills will be taught ► Curriculum benchmarking provides periodic assessments and minimum standards of achievement ► Curriculum audits help identify strengths and gaps in instructional practices ► Instructional differentiation attempts to determine which instructional methods are best for all learners Chapter 3: Curriculum Development and Implementation Focusing the Vision and the School’s Focusing the Vision and the School’s Mission through Curriculum ► “The principal is the curriculum or instructional specialist or leader who does have the understanding of philosophy, the clarity of vision, and the technical skills to move his/her programs toward meaningful activity.” ► Consider how the case study of Mauka Lani Elementary School exemplifies this alignment and call to action. Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff. Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning The Principal and Instructional The Principal and Instructional Planning ► Instructional planning should be a self­ reflective tool ► How does the cycle described in Figure 4­1 promote successful instructional planning? What are the benefits to instructional planning? Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning ► Provides a daily map Benefits of Instructional Planning Benefits of Instructional Planning ► Targets learner benchmarks ► Ensures that teacher follows up on identified weaknesses ► Reinforces teachers’ understanding of content knowledge ► Intertwined with the curriculum alignment process Beyond instructional planning, what are the added positive outcomes of the above listed benefits? Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning The Principal and Instructional The Principal and Instructional Planning (cont’d) ► Promoting Reflective Planning: What questions would you pose to a struggling teacher concerning goals, objectives, instructional activities, assessment, revision, and implementation? Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning The Principal and Instructional The Principal and Instructional Planning (cont’d) ► Using Student Data to Drive Instructional Planning: What are some of the obstacles that educators face in properly using student data to aid in instructional planning? How would you overcome these obstacles? ► Consider the anecdote of Dr. John Barrera. How does this example demonstrate the proper use of student data? ► REMEMBER! Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning The Principal and Instructional The Principal and Instructional Planning (cont’d) Do not use ONLY student achievement data Consider also: Ethno­instruction and Differentiated Instruction Why are these two strategies increasingly important in today’s classrooms? ► Using Students’ Cultural Backgrounds in Instructional Planning Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning Information Processing Information Processing ► Read the various theories of information processing as outlined in your text. ► Which theory/theories do you think best explain how people process information and why? ► Why is it important for a principal to have a working knowledge of these various theories? ► How could you develop these theories into practical applications at your school? Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning The Effective Schools Model The Effective Schools Model ► What makes an “effective” school? CLEAR AND FOCUSED MISSION Research shows the following… STRONG INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP POSITIVE HOME­SCHOOL RELATIONS HIGH EXPECTATIONS FREQUENT MONITORING SAFE AND ORDERLY ENVIRONMENT OPPORTUNITY TO LEARN Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning 1. 2. 3. Effective Teaching Practices: Effective Teaching Practices: The 12 Principles 4. Students can learn best within cohesive and caring communities Students learn more when time is allocated to curriculum related events All components of curriculum are aligned in a cohesive program designed to achieve specific goals Teacher can prepare students for learning by providing initial structure Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning Effective Teaching Practices: The 12 Principles (cont’d) 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. Content is explained clearly and developed with emphasis on structure and connections Questions are planned to engage students in sustained discourse Students receive sufficient opportunities to practice and apply what they’ve learned and to receive feedback Teacher provides assistance to enable students to engage in learning activities Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning Effective Teaching Practices: Effective Teaching Practices: The 12 Principles (cont’d) Teacher models and instructs students in learning and self­regulation strategies Students often benefit from working in pairs or small groups Teacher uses variety of formal and informal assessment methods Teacher establishes and follows through on appropriate expectations for learning outcomes 1. 2. 3. 4. Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning Conditions for Learning and Best Conditions for Learning and Best Practices School is warm and inviting Curriculum includes fine arts Students learn to be effective citizens Students learn to develop skills for the workplace School has smaller class sizes Support staff is available School reviews self Data and evidence drive decisions Why are these (and the other conditions listed) considered necessary conditions for learning? Can you think of any others? ► Conditions for Learning Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning Models of Observation Models of Observation ► Read the NCTAF’s 5 propositions deemed essential for accomplished teaching ► Do you agree that these 5 conditions are necessary? Why/why not? ► Can you think of any other essential propositions? ► How can a knowledge of these 5 propositions help a principal improve the effectiveness of teaching and learning at his/ her school? Chapter 4: Teaching and Learning Models of Observation (cont’d) Models of Observation (cont’d) ► Formative Evaluation ► Summative Evaluation ► Classroom Observations ► Peer Coaching ► Walk­Through Observations As a teacher, which of these types of observation do/did you prefer? Why? As a principal, which of these types of observation do you think will be most helpful? Why? Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation Chapter 5: Professional Development Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff. Chapter 5: Professional Development The Mission of Principals Related The Mission of Principals Related to Professional Development (PD) Defines o Well read and educated in Well read and educated in latest research , chers tea ds of tion, and nee cans rs instruc data S o s monit aggregate dis profess own persona ional gr owth ne l, accordi ng to da eds ta Thinks forward and consequentially ion Solut ed focus Initiat es collab and implem or profes e siona atively driv nts l deve e lopme n nt pla n Sensitive to students and community Analyzes impact on campus “THE IDEAL PD PRINCIPAL” Chapter 5: Professional Development The Principal’s Mission to Teachers’ The Principal’s Mission to Teachers’ PD PLAN: Work with teachers to develop a comprehensive PD targeted at individual and collective needs What is the advantage to this approach to teacher’s PD? PROVIDE: Resources (time and money) for teachers to be reflective about their practices Chapter 5: Professional Development High Quality PD High Quality PD ► Consider Knowles observations: Adult learners need to be self­directed Adult learners display readiness to learn why they have a perceived need Adult learners desire immediate application of new skills and knowledge Do you agree with Knowles’ findings? What are the implications of these findings on an effective PD program? Chapter 5: Professional Development The Ten Principles of Effective PD The Ten Principles of Effective PD 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Effective PD focuses on teachers as central to student learning, yet includes other members of the school community Effective PD focuses on the individual, collegial, and organizational improvement Effective PD respects and nurtures the intellectual and leadership capacity of teachers, principals, and others in the school community Effective PD reflects best available research and practice in teaching, learning, and leadership Effective PD enables teachers to develop further expertise in subject content, teaching strategies, uses of technologies, and other essential elements in teaching to high standards Chapter 5: Professional Development The Ten Principles of Effective PD (cont’d) Effective PD promotes continuous inquiry and improvement embedded in the daily life of schools Effective PD is planned collaboratively by those who will participate in and facilitate that development Effective PD requires substantial time and other resources Effective PD is driven by a coherent long­term plan Effective PD is evaluated ultimately on the basis of its impact on teacher effectiveness and student learning; and this assessment guides subsequent professional development efforts What would a PD program that utilizes all of these principles look like? 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Chapter 5: Professional Development The Principal’s Mission for Personal The Principal’s Missionfor Personal Professional Development ► Why is it essential that principals develop their own PD plan? ► Read the description of the PD Portfolio. What are the various components of the Portfolio and how do they work together to ensure that the principal embarks on a successful and effective PD plan? ► Review your own Portfolio (start one if you have not already). What components are missing or need to be updated? Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation Chapter 6: Student Services Standard 2: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by promoting a positive school culture, providing an effective educational program, applying best practices to student learning, and designing comprehensive professional growth plans for staff. Chapter 6: Student Services ► To provide for the realization of student Guidance and Counseling Services Guidance and Counseling Services potentialities ► To help children with developing problems ► To contribute to the development of the school’s curriculum ► To provide teachers with technical assistance ► To contribute to the mutual adjustment of students and the school Assess the scope of the guidance and counseling services offered on your campus. Chapter 6: Student Services ► Role of the Counselor Guidance and Counseling Services Guidance and Counseling Services (cont’d) ► Major Services Personal/social issues Educational issues Career planning Assessment Information Placement and follow­up Counseling (Directive, Nondirective, and Eclectic Counseling) Chapter 6: Student Services ► When evaluating the program, consider… Guidance and Counseling Services (cont’d) Using these 10 criteria, Student needs evaluate the guidance and Cooperation counseling program at Process and product your school or one you have worked at in the past. Balance How can these Stability characteristics help you Flexibility plan for an effective Qualified counselors program at your school? Adequate counselor­student ratio Physical facilities Records Chapter 6: Student Services Attendance and Student Records Attendance and Student Records ► Cumulative records should contain: Personal data sheet Parent’s report Child’s self­concept Sociogram Behavior reports Standardized test data What is the purpose of ensuring that these artifacts appear in student’s cumulative record? Chapter 6: Student Services Evaluating Student Progress Evaluating Student Progress ► As NCLB stresses AYP and accountability, evaluating student progress has become a critical role for the 21st century principal. Assessment can serve various purposes: Help student understand self Provide information for education/vocational counseling Help staff understand student population Evaluate the academic progress of students Help administrative staff appraise programs Facilitate curriculum revision Make instructional management decisions Make decisions about screening students Make program decisions Chapter 6: Student Services Evaluating Student Progress (cont’d) Evaluating Student Progress (cont’d) ► While many bemoan the NCLB’s emphasis on testing, assessment clearly has its benefits if the testing program is well developed Minimum components of testing battery: Emerging reading tests Learning readiness tests Intelligence tests Achievement tests Interest and aptitude tests 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Chapter 6: Student Services Reporting to Parents/Family Reporting to Parents/Family ► Any teacher knows that grading has its difficulties. Among them are: How can a principal account for and deal with these difficulties? Compare your solutions with the following… Teacher variability Unreliable aptitude scores for all students Policy variability Variety of alternatives to traditional methods Chapter 6: Student Services Methods of Reporting Grades Methods of Reporting Grades ► Percentage method ► Letter method ► Descriptive method ► Percentile method ► Rank method ► Three­group method ► T­score method What are the benefits and draw­ backs to each of these methods? In what circumstances would you use one method over another? Chapter 6: Student Services Extracurricular Activities Extracurricular Activities ► Shouldn’t principals be concerned solely with the academic program at their school? Extracurricular activities are vital to help students develop skills and talents not readily tapped into in the traditional core subjects. Read the text’s explanation of the functions of these activities. Can you think of any others? Chapter 6: Student Services Special Education Services Special Education Services ► Key Legislation: ► Key Components of IDEA: Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Education for All Handicapped Act of 1975 Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) Related Services Due Process Discipline Make sure you are familiar with these terms and their legal implications. Remember that a principal must ensure the quality education of Chapter 6: Student Services Gifted Education Gifted Education ► The area of Gifted Education is growing rapidly and principals must be aware of how to best serve this special population. Gifted students will NOT thrive on their own; they need and deserve the services, attention, and resources to best develop their gifts and talents. ► Refer to Figure 6­2 for a list of options that will help to meet the needs of gifted students Chapter 6: Student Services Bilingual Education Bilingual Education ► As with the gifted population, students requiring bilingual services are also rapidly growing ► Principals must consider the following when creating an ESL program: State guidelines Student population to be served District resources Chapter 6: Student Services Bilingual Education (cont’d) Bilingual Education (cont’d) ► Principals must be aware of the following terms Early­exit Late­exit Immersion Dual immersion Submersion Dual­language Two­way Chapter 6: Student Services Bilingual Education (cont’d) ► ESL Program Models: Pull Out Class Period Shelter English or Content­based Programs Structured English Immersion High Intensity Language Training Programs When would it be appropriate to use each of the above models? Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation The Big Cheese Jr. Cheese Asst. Cheese Assoc. Cheese Chapter 7: Organizational Structures Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment. Chapter 7: Organizational Structures ► Job Specialization ► Delegation Important Concepts of Important Concepts of Organizational Structure ► Departmentalization ► Decentralization ► Span of Management What do each of these terms mean and how do they help to explain the concept of an organizational structure? Chapter 7: Organizational Structures Schools as Open Systems Schools as Open Systems ► Schools are open systems because… they interact with their environments ► Inputs = human, financial, physical, and information resources ► Transformation Process = combining and coordinating resources to attain goals ► Outputs = prepared and educated students, staff and community satisfaction ► Feedback = student, parent, staff, and community reaction to output Chapter 7: Organizational Structures Leadership Functions Leadership Functions Planning Monitoring Leading How can an understanding of the interplay between these functions help a principal to more effectively manage the organizational structure of their school? Organizing Chapter 7: Organizational Structures Administrative Roles Administrative Roles ► Principal Activities: Heavy Workload at a Fast Pace Variety, Fragmentation, and Brevity Oral Communication Are these activities unique to the role of the principal? Which of these do you find most daunting? Which of these comes naturally to you? Chapter 7: Organizational Structures acquire, analyze, and interpret information ► Human Skills: One’s ability to motivate, facilitate, coordinate, lead, communicate, manage conflict, and get along with others ► Technical Skills: One’s ability to use knowledge, methods, and techniques of a specific discipline Consider Figure 7­3. At what level would you place yourself? Your current administrators? How does one move “up” the hierarchy? ► Conceptual Skills: One’s mental ability to Management Skills Management Skills Chapter 7: Organizational Structures Effective Principals Effective Principals ► Task Dimensions: Consider Sashkin and Huddle’s 13 task dimensions of a principal. How can you deliberately design your actions to build cultural as well as managerial linkages? ► Human Resource Activities: Consider the list of traits of ineffective administrators. Why would these be detriments to an effective principal and how could you correct each of these shortcomings? Chapter 7: Organizational Structures Effective vs. Successful Effective vs. Successful Administrators ► Successful = rapid ► Effective = how well a principal was evaluated by subordinates Most time on task­ related communication Human resource management promotion Little time on human resource management Good at networking Politically savvy Are these findings surprising to you? What are their implications? Chapter 7: Organizational Structures The Demise of Bureaucracy The Demise of Bureaucracy ► What is the harm of bureaucracy? Explain why each of the following are seen as negative features to bureaucracy, especially in education. Division of labor and specialization Reliance on rules and procedures Emphasis on hierarchy of authority Lifelong careers and evaluation Impersonality So what are the alternatives? Chapter 7: Organizational Structures Emergent Models of Emergent Models of Organizational Structure ► System 4 Design ► Site Based Management ► Transformational Leadership ► Synergistic Leadership Theory ► Total Quality Management (TQM) Read the description of each model carefully. Which one appeals to you the most and why? Regardless of which model you find most intriguing, consider… Chapter 7: Organizational Structures 10 Concepts Helpful in Restructuring the 10 Concepts Helpful in Restructuring the Content of Schooling Heterogeneous grouping Cooperative learning High expectations for all Responsiveness to student diversity Emphasis on active learning ► Essential curriculum ► Authentic assessment ► Technology as a tool ► Time as a learning ► ► ► ► ► resource ► Diverse pedagogy Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment. Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker The Nature of Decision Making The Nature of Decision Making Making a choice from a number of options Decision Making Understanding how a decision was reached Purpose or goal achieved Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker The Decision Making Process The Decision Making Process Identifying the problem Generating alternatives Evaluating alternatives Choosing an alternative Implementing the decision Evaluating decision effectiveness Recycle process as necessary Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker ► What is rational decision making? The Rational Decision Maker The Rational Decision Maker Problem is clear Single goal is to be achieved All alternatives and consequences are known Preferences are clear Preferences are constant and stable No time or cost constraints Final choice will maximize economic payoff Do these assumptions seem applicable to most school organizations you are aware of? Rationality seems limited, so… Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker ► Bounded Rationality: Limits to Rationality Limits to Rationality ► Consider: Satisfying, Heuristics, Primacy/Recency Decisions based on incomplete comprehension of the problem Decision makers will not succeed in generating all possible solutions Alternatives are evaluated incompletely Ultimate decision must be based on criterion other than maximization Effect, Bolstering the Alternative, Intuition, Incrementalizing, the Garbage­Can Model How can these processes compensate for the limits to rationality and allow a principal to make effective decisions? Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker Shared Decision Making Shared Decision Making ► ► ► Often committees, teams, councils, etc. must make decisions too. In these instances, an understanding of the shared decision making process is necessary. To help involve teachers in the process, consider Huddleston, Claspell, and Killion’s method: Readiness: prepare for shared decision making Experimentation: build comfort in the decision making process Refinement: share the decision making process Institutionalization: shared decision making becomes norm This process is not flawless. What are the advantages and disadvantages to shared decision making? Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages to Shared Decision Making • • • • • • Social pressures toward Greater sum total knowledge conformity Obviously, a principal needs to carefully consider if the shared decision making • Individual domination Greater number of process is appropriate for any given approaches to the • Conflicting secondary situation. Read Williams’s list of skills problem needed for effective site­based decision goals Greater number of making. Do these tips seem “do­able”? Now • Undesirable read through the model provided in the text. alternatives compromises While seemingly esoteric, what are the Increased acceptance of • Ambiguous responsibility practical applications and advantages to this a decision method? • More time needed Better comprehension of a problem and decision Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker ► An alternative model to shared decision Decision Making – Pattern Decision Making – Pattern Choice making, this approach focuses on a continuum of leadership from boss­centered to subordinate­centered ► Review Figure 8­4 for a more detailed look at this approach ► The principal must consider the forces in the leader, forces in the group members, forces in the situation, and long­run goals and strategy… Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker Decision Making – Pattern Choice (Cont’d) Decision Making – Pattern Choice (Cont’d) Forces in the leader that determine which of the patterns to choose from: ► ► Forces in the situation that create pressure: The problem Time constraints ► Forces in the group members that allow for greater freedom: High need for independence Readiness to assume responsibility High tolerance for ambiguity Interested in problem Understand goals Have necessary knowledge Expect to share in process Value system Confidence in group members Leadership inclinations Feelings of security in uncertain situation ► Long­run goals and strategy to consider: There is no formula for perfect decision making. An effective principal must consider the forces in a given situation and assess which should influence him or her in a given situation. Raising level of motivation Improving quality of decisions Developing teamwork and morale Furthering individual development Increasing readiness to accept change Chapter 8: The Principal as Decision Maker The Synergistic Decision Making Approach The Synergistic Decision Making Approach Listening Active listening with respect, consideration, and no judgment Paraphrase; be respectful; assume sincerity; avoid pre­judgment Build on previous remarks to encourage a free, non­competitive, and diverse discussion When confusion arises, phrase neutral questions, avoid condescension, avoid impatience, and do not assume you have the answer ► ► ► Responding Reinforcing Clarifying ► Do you think teachers would be receptive to this process? Why or why not? Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment. Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication ► Communication = the process of transmitting The Communication Process The Communication Process information from one person to another Encode Sender Decode Medium Message Noise Feedback Decode Receiver Encode ► Read the tips in the text on planning a successful communication process. What have been the positive traits of past communication processes you have been involved in? Negative traits? Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication Organizational Communication Organizational Communication The following slides will take a closer look at different categories of communication: Downward Upward Horizontal Formal Communication Networks Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication Downward Communication Downward Communication ► Information transmits from higher to lower levels ► Purposes of downward communication Implement goals and strategies Job instruction and rationale Procedures and practices Performance feedback Socialization What situations warrant downward communication? Which situations would be inappropriate? Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication Upward Communication Upward Communication ► Information transmits from lower to higher levels ► Types of information in upward communication Problems and expectations Suggestions for improvement Performance reports Grievances and disputes Financial and accounting information Read through the barriers to effective upward communication and the tips to improve it. What other barriers have you encountered in upward communication? What could a principal have done to overcome those barriers? Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication Horizontal Communication Horizontal Communication ► Information transmits laterally or diagonally across lines of formal chain of command; essential for increasing coordination ► Categories of horizontal communication Intradepartmental problem solving Interdepartmental coordination Staff advice to line departments Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication The three previous communication patterns can combine to form five common networks 1. Chain: line authority relationships 2. Y: two or more interacting members report to a single supervisor What are the advantages and 3. Wheel: several non­interacting members report to a disadvantages to each of these single supervisor communication networks? 4. Circle: members interact with adjoining members, but not others 5. All­Channel: members interact with adjoining members and all others ► Informal network: The grapevine flows in all directions and is not fixed by any formal organizational chart ► Communication Networks Communication Networks Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication Managing Communication: Barriers Managing Communication: Barriers ► Process barriers: blocked communication with How can you, as a principal, work to overcome these barriers? What has been the cause of communication breakdowns you have experienced in the past? How does your experience compare with the list of factors listed in the text? sender, encoding, medium, decoding, receiver, or feedback ► Physical barriers: concrete and real factors that block communication ► Semantic barriers: variations and misunderstandings of connotations ► Psychosocial barriers: factors such as fields of experience, filtering, and psychological distance that inhibit effective communication Chapter 9: Developing Effective Communication ► All members of the communication process are responsible for improving communication What can a sender (a principal) do to improve communication with various stakeholders? Consider the Ten Commandments listed in the text. What can receivers do to improve communication? Again, consider the ten suggestions in the text. What is active listening? What can one do to improve giving responsive feedback? What types of non­verbal communication should one be aware of? Do the suggestions given in the text seem practical? Select at least one strategy posited from the questions posed above and explain how you would use it to improve your own communication. Then, go do it! Improving Communication Effectiveness Improving Communication Effectiveness Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation The Principal and Change Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment. Chapter 10: Chapter 10: The Principal and Change ► While most systems tend toward the status The Nature of Organizational The Nature of Organizational Change quo, principals must anticipate and direct change positively External forces for change: the marketplace, laws and regulations, technology, labor markets, economic changes …what else? Internal forces for change: problems with processes or people…such as? And yet, there is often strong resistance to change… Chapter 10: The Principal and Change Why Is Change Resisted? Why Is Change Resisted? ► Uncertainty ► Concern over personal loss ► Group resistance ► Dependence ► Trust ► Awareness of weaknesses Why have you resisted change in the past? What can a principal do to overcome this resistance? Chapter 10: The Principal and Change Overcoming Resistance to Change Overcoming Resistance to Change ► Some strategies: Education and communication Participation and involvement Facilitation and support Negotiation and agreement Manipulation and cooptation Explicit and implicit coercion Which of these strategies do you think would be most effective? Why? In what types of situations would you use each? What other strategies can you think of? Chapter 10: The Principal and Change Getting Reform Right: What Getting Reform Right: What Works and What Doesn’t ► Current research suggests the following: Change is learning Change is a journey, not a blueprint Problems are our friends Change is resource­hungry Change requires the power to manage it Change is systematic All large­scale change is implemented locally Chapter 10: The Principal and Change ► Types of change agents: Managing Change Managing Change What are some “real­world” examples of each of these types? Outside pressure type People­change­technology type Analysis­for­the­top type Organization­development type ► Change agent roles: When would a principal need to play each of these roles? Consulting Training Research Chapter 10: The Principal and Change Managing Change (cont’d) Managing Change (cont’d) ► Common characteristics of effective change Hemophily Empathy Linkage Proximity Structuring Capacity Openness Reward Energy Synergy Why are these desired characteristics of a change agent? Chapter 10: The Principal and Change The Change Process The Change Process ► Phase 1: Pressure and arousal ► Phase 2: Intervention and reorientation ► Phase 3: Diagnosis and recognition ► Phase 4: Invention and commitment ► Phase 5: Experimentation and search ► Phase 6: Reinforcement and acceptance Note that this model focuses on the role of the change agent (i.e. the principal). What would a principal actually be doing in each of these phases? Chapter 10: The Principal and Change ► Build a vision ► Mobilize ► Train Promoting Successful School Promoting Successful School Change ► Create a positive climate ► Engage community support ► Provide resources ► Remove barriers Please note that the previous and subsequent chapters deal with each of these strategies. Chapter 10: The Principal and Change Change Strategies Change Strategies ► Process Strategies ► Structural Strategies Survey feedback Team building Process consultation Quality of work life Goal setting Job redesign Quality circles Strategic planning Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment. Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities Basic Terms to Know Basic Terms to Know ► Expenditures ► Current Expenses ► Capital Outlay ► Debt Service ► Revenue ► Fiscally Independent vs. Fiscally Dependent Districts ► Fiscal Neutrality Standard Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities The Budgeting Process The Budgeting Process Board of Education Superintendent CFO AS Budget Committee Division Head: Elementary AS AS Division Head: Secondary Elementary Building Secondary Building Principal Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities Financial Controls Financial Controls ► What are the purposes of financial controls? ► Two types: internal control and financial Assist principals in acquiring, allocating, and evaluating the use of financial resources Allow districts to pay short­ and long­term debts Protect districts from theft, fraud, etc. audits Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities Internal Control Internal Control ► ► The policies and procedures used by a district to safeguard assets and verify accounting data Effective internal control should include… 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Clear, formal organization Accounts for each administrative unit Handling and record keeping of assets should not be done by the same employee No one person has control over all phases of any given transaction No redundant work, but employees should check work Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities Financial Audits Financial Audits ► Independent appraisal of district’s accounting, financial, and operational systems ► Two types… External: conducted by experts outside of the district to verify district accuracy Internal: conducted by district employees to examine the accuracy of financial reports What would be the various advantages and disadvantages to external and internal audits? Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities A district starts the budgeting process at zero every year ► Not just adjustments to last year’s budget; EVERY expenditure must be justified ► Three steps: ► Zero­Base Budgeting Zero­Base Budgeting AN ALTERNATIVE 1. Identify Decision Units BUDGETING SYSTEM… 2. Develop Decision Packages 3. Rank the Decision Packages What parts of a district’s organization would be best served by zero­based budget and why? Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities Similar to ZBB, but not all programs need be justified ► The basic steps: ► 1. 2. 3. 4. Planning­Programming­ Planning­Programming­ Budgeting Systems The textbook states that “PPBS has not been the great tool in practice that its logic would imply.” Why might this be? Specify goals Search for relevant alternatives Measure the costs of the programs for several years Evaluate the output of each program Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities School Facilities Management School Facilities Management ► Principals in the 21st century must be aware of: Rising school infrastructure costs New school constructs costs Environmental hazards inherent with aging facilities Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities ► Infrastructure = the physical facilities that School Infrastructure Costs School Infrastructure Costs make up a school building (plumbing, heating, electrical, sewer, etc.) ► Which areas do you think would have the schools in the best/worst condition? ► How much of one’s budget should be allocated to these costs? Experts say 5%, but most schools put aside only 3% Why are schools falling apart and why do repairs cost so much? Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Age of facilities Energy prices Weather conditions Density and vandalism Newer buildings “A ticking time bomb”: most educators and the public simply do not pay attention to the ailing infrastructure of America’s Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities Financing School Construction Financing School Construction ► With ever increasing public school enrollments, building new schools will become a large factor in many districts throughout the country. According to the text, what are some unique challenges that building new schools brings about? How are schools built today fundamentally different from schools built decades ago? Chapter 11: Budgeting and School Facilities Environmental Hazards Environmental Hazards ► Every principal should be aware of: Asbestos Radon gas School lead Indoor air quality Electromagnetic fields What dangers do each of these hazards present and how might a principal safely handle each? Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation Creating Safe Schools Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment. Chapter 12: Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools School Violence and Drug Use School Violence and Drug Use ►What does the research say? Read the bulleted points from the selected studies presented in the text. Do these findings surprise you? Why/why not? Brainstorm some action plans and strategies that a principal could implement to address the trends identified in these studies. Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools An Action Plan: 6 Strategies for An Action Plan: 6 Strategies for Success Predict School Violence Prevent School Violence Focus Resources on Schools Strengthen the System Develop a Crisis Management Plan Create an Orderly Climate for Learning 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. These strategies are, of course, not meant to be used in isolation of one another; a combination of all or some of the strategies, depending on your school climate, will surely help you create a safe school. Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools Strategy #1: Predict Strategy #1: Predict School Violence Collect and analyze data Identify problem students and provide support Identify problem teachers and provide support and training Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools Strategy #2: Prevent Strategy #2: Prevent School Violence ► Toughen Weapons Laws: What specific policies should a principal advocate in order to achieve this? ► Deal with Violent Students: What specific strategies should a principal use? Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools Strategy #3: Focus Strategy #3: Focus Resources on Schools ► Fund the Basic Education Program ► Teach Violence Prevention ► Establish Task Forces How could a principal implement this strategy considering the other financial demands a school faces? Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools Strategy #4: Strengthen Strategy #4: Strengthen the System ► Improve the Juvenile Code ► Create a State Center for the Prevention of School Violence How, realistically, can a principal affect these systems that are seemingly out of their jurisdiction? Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools Strategy #5: Develop a Strategy #5: Develop a Crisis Management Plan ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► ► Form a School­wide Crisis Management Team Conduct an Ongoing, School­wide Safety Audit Develop Policies and Procedures for Various Emergencies Conduct Safety Drills How could you best communicate the need to Develop a School­wide Discipline Plan follow these steps to a resistant staff? Provide a Means for Students to Communicate Information to Staff Teach Students Alternatives to Violence Evaluate Administrative Practices of the School Use Resources to Identify Students “At­Risk” for Violent Behavior Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools Strategy #6: Create an Strategy #6: Create an Orderly Climate for Learning ► Establish and Emphasize Goals ► Establish Rules and Procedures ► Improve Teacher­Student Relations in the Classroom What specific rules and procedures would be most helpful in creating a safe school? What specific strategies can a principal and/or teacher use to improve teacher­student relations? Chapter 12: Creating Safe Schools Consider… Consider… ► What are the pros and cons of each of the six previous strategies? ► Beside creating safer schools, what are the other positive outcomes of these strategies? ► Which of the strategies (or combination of strategies) would you be most likely to implement in your school and why? ► Beyond these six strategies, what else can principals do to ensure that their school is a safe one? Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation Chapter 13: Human Resource Management Standard 3: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by managing the organization, operations, and resources in a way that promotes a safe, efficient, and effective learning environment. Chapter 13: Human Resource Management The Human Resource Management The Human Resource Management Process Recruitment Legal Constraints Selection Staff Development Performance Appraisal Union Demands Chapter 13: Human Resource Management Recruitment of Staff Recruitment of Staff ► Before recruitment can commence, principals should: Analyze the job requirements: refer to job descriptions and job specifications Know and understand legal constraints involved in recruitment: consult Table 13­1 Cultivate the sources of potential employees: promotion within a district, college placement offices, advertisements, referrals, job fairs, teacher recruitment consortiums Chapter 13: Human Resource Management Selection of Staff Selection of Staff Typical steps in staff selection: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Preliminary screening of credentials Preliminary interview Testing Reference Checks In­depth interview Physical examination Hiring decision The most complications usually arise in the interview process… Chapter 13: Human Resource Management The Interview Process The Interview Process ► Typical problems: Interviewer is unfamiliar with the job Interviewers make premature decision based on first impressions Interviewers impose personal biases on the applicants How to improve the process Chapter 13: Human Resource Management A Better Interview Process Will Include… A Better Interview Process Will Include… in aid ips e t an s the cess? C l uld efu wo on pro y r us h W cti the e y o sel he f an ns? t k o thin ggestio ou y su Use of a structured interview format Explicitly trained interviewers The interview as ONE aspect of the selection process Candidates that are given interviews only after references are checked Candidates whose files are screened for completeness Sufficient time for each interview Mailing candidates two or three questions prior to interview Name cards placed in front of each interviewer An evaluation form regarding the interview experience given to each candidate Chapter 13: Human Resource Management DO ASK ABOUT… DO Why applicant wants to teach at school/district What can applicant bring to the school that is uniquely theirs Why type of grading criteria is used How applicant keeps current in the field What has applicant done to develop professionally What is applicant’s view of the relationship between faculty and administration What are some other insightful and helpful interview questions that you can think of? Chapter 13: Human Resource Management DO NOT ASK ABOUT… DO NOT Age Financial condition Prior wage garnishments Home ownership Disabilities Marital status Where spouse works Pregnancy or medical history Ages of children Military experience Religious observance Ancestry, nation of origin, place of birth, original language, etc. How applicant learned a foreign language Membership in clubs that would indicate race, color, sex, etc. Names and addresses of relatives not working for the district How long applicant intends to work Chapter 13: Human Resource Management Staff Development Staff Development ► Assess Staff Development Needs: Review the three methods listed in the text. What are the benefits to these methods? ► Set Staff Development Goals: Why is an understanding of the three categories of objectives necessary for a principal seeking to improve staff development? ► Select Staff Development Methods: Examine the table that identifies widely used methods. Which of these (or combination thereof) do you think would be most effective and why? Chapter 13: Human Resource Management Staff Development (cont’d) Staff Development (cont’d) ► Evaluate Staff Development Program: Why are the questions relating to staff development outcomes important to ask? ► Induct Beginning Teachers: Recall how it felt when you first became a teacher. What information do you wish you had been given? What specific strategies can principals use to aid beginning teachers? ► Improve Support for Beginning Teachers: Which of the recommendations listed to help principals work with beginning teachers could you most easily implement at your school? Can you think of any other specific strategies that would help achieve similar results? Chapter 13: Human Resource Management Staff Performance Appraisal Staff Performance Appraisal ► Appraisal Techniques ► Common Rating Errors Nonjudgmental methods Judgmental methods Too strict or lenient Central tendency Single dimension Halo effect Recency of events Personal bias and first impressions Chapter 13: Human Resource Management ► 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ► Clinical Supervision: Modern Appraisal Techniques Modern Appraisal Techniques Pre­observation conference Observation Analysis and strategy Supervision conference Post­conference 1. Supervisor and teacher meet to determine goals 2. Supervisor and teacher meet to appraise performance in terms of goals set Goal Setting As a teacher, which appraisal techniques did/do you prefer? Why? As a principal, which do you think you will employ? Chapter 13: Human Resource Management Union­Management Relations Union­Management Relations Why must a principal work hard to create and maintain positive union­management relations? ► The Collective Bargaining Process ► Bargaining team selection Negotiations If negotiations are successful ratification If negotiations are not successful impasse Mediation Fact Finding Arbitration 1. 2. 3. Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation Community Relations Standard 4: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by collaborating with families and other community members, responding to diverse community interests and needs, and mobilizing community resources. Chapter 14: Chapter 14: Community Relations ► A principal should be a bridge between The Principal as a “Boundary The Principal as a “Boundary Spanner” the school and external constituencies Chapter 14: Community Relations ► Schools become a lifeline. Why is this? ► What a principal can do: Leading Community Efforts Leading Community Efforts during Catastrophe Establish means of communication Assess damage quickly and make accommodations Prioritize needs and establish authority to make decisions Address emotional and survival needs of staff and students Arrange for training and support for mental health caregivers (prior to a catastrophe) Provide feedback to media Identify and secure available resources After a catastrophe, encourage creative lesson planning that uses lessons learned Chapter 14: Community Relations Leading School, Family, and Leading School, Family, and Community Involvement ► Community = just parents ► What members of any given community might be most helpful to a school? ► Why is it important that a principal learn to serve as a leader of this community and not just the school? Chapter 14: Community Relations Leading School, Family, and Leading School, Family, and Community Involvement (cont’d) avenues: involvement: Orientation meetings Parenting Research demonstrates that parental Newsletters Communicating involvement is a key factor in students’ What are the School handbook Volunteering academic achievement, self­ advantages and Programs for families Learning at home confidence, and attitude toward disadvantages to each Suggestion box of these avenues? school. What can a principal do to Decision making Home visits encourage and promote parental Collaboration with Conferences community involvement, especially for minority Journals Comprehensive groups? Personal notes partnerships Phone calls ► Communication ► Epstein’s types of Chapter 14: Community Relations “Educational public relations is a planned and systematic management function to help improve the programs and services of an educational organization. It relies on a comprehensive two­way communication process…[to] assist in interpreting public attitudes, identify and help shape policies and procedures in the public interest, and carry on involvement and information activities that earn public understanding and support.” The National School Public Relations Association School­Community Relations School­Community Relations Chapter 14: Community Relations To develop two­way communication and collaboration within a community, the NPSRA suggests: ► Anticipate problems ► Promote school’s ► Handle all school strengths publications ► Publicize staff and What else can a principal do ► Write news releases student achievement to create strong community ► Stay connected to budget ► Answer request for process relations? information ► Develop communication ► Provide PR training for plan staff ► Conduct formal and ► Serve as liaison to informal research to community groups gauge public opinion School­Community Relations School­Community Relations (cont’d) Chapter 14: Community Relations Public Relations Public Relations ► 1. 2. 3. 4. Strong PR programs follow these basic steps: Research Action plan Communicate Evaluate Read “A Young Principal’s Story.” Identify and evaluate the principal’s use of this process. Compare this principal’s actions with those of the principal in “A Seasoned Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation The Principal and Ethics Standard 5: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by acting with integrity, fairly, and in an ethical manner. Chapter 15: Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics What Is an Ethical Principal? What Is an Ethical Principal? ► “One who, in the face of adversity, ambiguity, and challenge, will reflect on what is right by some set standard or code and will act in a rational and caring manner to resolve problems and conduct business.” ► Do you agree with the text’s definition(s) of an ethical principal? What are some of the obstacles that might prevent a principal from behaving ethically? How might you overcome those obstacles? Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics Philosophical Concepts of Ethics Philosophical Concepts of Ethics ► Rights Considering each Commitment, and Formality concept individually, ► Responsibility and ► Conflict of Interest Authority why must a principal ► Loyalty ► Duty be aware of each ► Prudence ► Justice in order to behave ethically? ► Freedom ► Equity ► Critique ► Caring ► Profession ► Moral Imperative ► Character, Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics ► Promoting Ethical Behavior in Athletic Programs Ethical Behavior in Schools Ethical Behavior in Schools Why is this an issue? Has it become more of an issue in recent years? Why do you think this is? Consider: 1. 2. 3. 4. Athletes must be considered ends and not means Competition must be fair Participation, leadership, resources, and rewards must be based on achievement Activity must be safe for participants How do these principles sustain traditional values? What other principles should an administrator be mindful of concerning athletics? Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics 1. Ethical Behavior in Schools: Promoting Ethical Ethical Behavior in Schools: Promoting Ethical Behavior through Character Education Education Is an Inescapable Moral Enterprise Parents Are Primary Moral Educators of Children Character Education Develops Virtues Teachers, Principals, and Staff Are Central to Character Education Schools Are Communities of Virtue 2. Character Education Goes beyond Academic Curriculum 3. Character Creation Is an Essential and Demanding Life Task 1. 2. 3. 4. What are the benefits to character education and how can these 7 principles help you develop a character education program? Consider how you would work with your superintendent, school board, and other administrators. Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics National and State Codes of National and State Codes of Ethics for Principals ► Rationale for a Code of Ethics tools supplied by these national agencies ► National Associations (click for website) support the rationale for a code of ethics? Provide guidelines for conduct Establish accountability and protect students How do the guidelines and self­assessment Serve as catalyst for job improvement American Association of School Administrators National Association of Elementary School Principa and the National Association of Secondary School Principa Chapter 15: The Principal and Ethics National and State Codes of National and State Codes of Ethics for Principals (cont’d) ► Review the sample state codes in the text. ► How do these codes support the concepts and principles discussed earlier in the chapter? ► Does your state supply a Code of Ethics for Educators? How does it help to ensure that educators and administrators behave in an ethical manner? Is there anything missing for your state’s code that you think would be helpful? Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context Standard 6: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by understanding, responding to, and influencing the larger political, social, economic, legal, and cultural context. Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context Policy: A Historical Perspective Policy: A Historical Perspective ► As far as policy is concerned, what is the importance of the following terms and events? Brown vs. Board of Education Differentiated curriculum Equity Socio­economically disadvantaged Public Law 94­142 Accountability Data­driven decision making English Language Learner Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context ► Read the various definitions of policy in the text. Policy Policy What are the commonalities in these definitions? What is policy? ► Levels of relationship to policy Orientation Degree Resources Activity Autonomy Societal Values Instructional Values Rationale Power Relationships Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context Policy Theory Policy Theory ► Systems Theory ► Neo­pluralist Advocacy Coalition and Interest Group Theories ► Neo­institutional Theory ► Critical Theory ► Feminist Theory ► Postmodernism ► Ideological Theories What different insights regarding policy can be gleaned from each of the mentioned theories? Why is it important for a principal to have a working knowledge of these theories? What are the practical applications of these theories? Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context Dimensions of Policy Dimensions of Policy ► Normative dimension ► Structural dimension ► Constituentive dimension ► Technical dimension Take a close look at Figure 16­2 to understand how these dimension interact to create policy Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context Politics Politics ► What is your definition of politics? ► How does your definition compare to those given the text? ► Which of Apple’s groups would you place yourself in? The majority of teachers and staff at your school? The majority of the stakeholders in your community? Why is it important to identify these groups? ► Why must a principal be constantly aware of the politics of education? Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context Types of Educational Politics Types of Educational Politics ► Pluralist Maintenance Politics ► Adversarial Politics ► Unitary Politics ► Democratic Politics ► Consolidated Principal Power The text states that “there are five perspectives on school politics that might be beneficial to principals to understand within their own political, school contexts.” What are the similarities and differences between these perspectives and how can an understanding of them be beneficial to a principal? Chapter 16: Political and Policy Context Politics: Working with the Superintendent Politics: Working with the Superintendent and Other External Forces ► What is Davis’s take on the politics of principal evaluations? Why would this important opportunity for self­reflection cause tension between a principal and superintendent? ► Read the eight suggestions for working within political systems and with superintendents. Do you find these tips useful? Why/why not? Can you think of any other suggestions for working with the various political components of a district to ensure the quality education of all students? Return to Table of Contents Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Proceed to Next Chapter End Presentation Chapter 17: Legal Issues Standard 6: Candidates who complete the program are educational leaders who have the knowledge and ability to promote the success of all students by understanding, responding to, and influencing the larger political, social, economic, legal, and cultural context. Chapter 17: Legal Issues Legal Basis for Public Education Legal Basis for Public Education ► Obviously, any administrator and educator needs to ensure that all of their actions are lawful. The following slides will briefly outline the various sources of educational law. Chapter 17: Legal Issues ► The United States Constitution ► Federal Statutes Sources of Law: Federal Sources of Law: Federal Education is NOT specifically mentioned in the Constitution, so how can the federal government regulate it? Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 Civil Rights Acts of 1964 & 1991 Department of Education Office of Civil Rights Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Environmental Protection Agency ► Federal Administrative Agencies ► Case Law What power does the Supreme Court have concerning education? Chapter 17: Legal Issues Sources of Law: State Sources of Law: State ► State Constitutions ► State Statutes ► Case Law ► State Administrative Agencies ► Local Level (school districts and service centers) What is the purpose and jurisdiction of each of the above sources for state education law? Chapter 17: Legal Issues Sources of Law: Judicial Sources of Law: Judicial ► Federal Courts U.S. Supreme Court ► State Courts State Supreme Court U.S. Circuit Courts (13) Intermediate Appellate Courts U.S. District Courts (89) Courts of General Jurisdiction (Superior and Circuit Courts) Courts of Limited Jurisdiction (Municipal and Small Claims) Chapter 17: Legal Issues Schools and the State Schools and the State The following are the most common and pervasive issues administrators face concerning state and local legal authority in education Equal Access Act Released Time for Compulsory School Religious Instruction Attendance Residency Requirements State Aid to Private Schools Church­State Relations School Fees Prayer and Bible Reading Transportation Silent Prayer Textbooks, Courses, Prayer at Graduation and and Supplies Extracurricular Activities Extracurricular Activities Chapter 17: Legal Issues Schools and the State (cont’d) Schools and the State (cont’d) ► State’s control over curriculum: ► State­mandated School districts must offer Strongly supported by curriculum prescribed by NCLB the legislature or law Most controversy centers Recent cases uphold around using tests as district’s power to ban graduation requirements certain curriculum (but not What can a principal do to for purely religious reasons) minimize litigation in performance testing: these matters? Chapter 17: Legal Issues Students and the Law Students and the Law ► Can a student, legally, say whatever they want in a school? Why or why not? What is and is not protected by the First Amendment? ► Can a student, legally, dress any way they see fit while in school? Why or why not? What are regulations concerning health and safety standards, gang­related dress, controversial slogans, and school uniforms? Chapter 17: Legal Issues Students and the Law (cont’d) Students and the Law (cont’d) ► Extracurricular Activities ► Student Discipline Conditions may be attached to participation in extracurricular activities What are the stipulations for suspensions, disciplinary transfers, and expulsions? 27 states ban corporeal punishment Protection from unreasonable search and seizure must be balanced with the need to maintain a safe school environment Chapter 17: Legal Issues Students and the Law (cont’d) Students and the Law (cont’d) ► Students with disabilities As discussed in Chapter 6, a principal must be very aware of the laws, acts, and legislation concerning students with disabilities The most significant act, IDEA, assures that students with disabilities 1) receive a free appropriate education, 2) are prepared for employment and independent living, 3) have their rights protected, and 4) receive appropriate services from the state Chapter 17: Legal Issues ► Certification: What are the standards for certification in Teachers and the Law Teachers and the Law your state? ► Contracts: ► Tenure: Offer and acceptance Competent parties Consideration Legal subject matter Proper form ► Dismissal: Does your state provide tenure for teachers and other staff? Each state mandates proper procedure. What is your state’s procedure? Chapter 17: Legal Issues ► Litigated under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of Teachers and the Law: Sexual Teachers and the Law: Sexual Harassment 1964 and Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 Discourage with: ► Includes No­tolerance policy Sexual bribery Wide dissemination of Sexual imposition policy Easy complaint filing Gender harassment Prompt and objective Sexual coercion Sexual behavior investigation Appropriate remedial action Chapter 17: Legal Issues Teachers and the Law: Discrimination Teachers and the Law: Discrimination Federal statutes prohibit discrimination based on: Race Gender Disabilities Age Religion Pregnancy Chapter 17: Legal Issues ► Constitution protects free association rights but Teachers and the Law: Collective Teachers and the Law: Collective Bargaining does not guarantee collective bargaining ► Bargaining issues to be aware of: Management rights Narrow grievance definition No­strike provision Zipper clause Maintenance of standards Just cause Reduction in force Wages and benefits Chapter 17: Legal Issues Teachers and the Law: Collective Teachers and the Law: Collective Bargaining (cont’d) Negotiating team selected Negotiations commence In the event of an impasse: Mediation Fact finding Arbitration ► The Bargaining Process 1. 2. 3. ► Bargaining Tactics: Counterproposals Tradeoffs Caucus Chapter 17: Legal Issues ► Tort = civil wrong (not contracts) for which a Tort Liability Tort Liability court can award damages To establish negligence: Duty Standard of care Proximate cause Injury Defense against negligence: Contributory negligence Assumption of risk Comparative negligence Governmental immunity Return to Beginning of Current Chapter Return to Table of Contents End Presentation ...
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