study guide 2

study guide 2 - 1.What is the elemental composition of the...

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1.What is the elemental composition of the cell, and what are the sources of these elements? Cells are made up of 90 % H2O Of the 10% remaining dry weight o 50% Protein o 15% Carb o 15% Nucleic acid o 10% Lipid Composition by element o 60% H o 25% O o 12% C o 5% N Nitrogen can be used in Nitrogen Fixation converting N2 into NH3 O2 used in Oxidative Phosphorilation as an electron donor to produce H2O C is used in glycolysis and Calvin cycle producing CO2 H used in ETC as an ingredient in the production of ATP 2. How do enzymes catalyze reactions? Binds to compounds, changes conformation, makes the compounds that are combining their intermediate states easier to join, thus lower the activation energy (can be degraded too) Never consumed, affect only the rate of the reaction by reducing the Activation energy, not the thermodynamics 3. Why are ATP and acetyl-coenzyme A considered energy-rich compounds? What are some other energy rich compounds? ATP contains high energy bonds that are unstable which allows for energy to be released when it is hydrolyzed Acetyl CoA releases energy when oxidized 4. Compare the ways that prokaryotic cells generate a PMF by respiration, photosynthesis and fermentation. In respiration protons are shuttled out of the mitochondria in the ETC, creating a higher gradient there so that ATP synthase can use the protons to convert ADP to ATP as the H come back inside the mitochondria Photosynthesis produces a electrochemical gradient (PMF) when light get absorbed. The PMF is used to generate ATP which is the same mechanism asin respiration. Fermenting cells hydrolyze ATP to make a proton gradient (PMF) for flagella and the transportation of nutrients into the cell
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5. How is respiration coupled to biological work? Be able to describe the electron transport chain in Paracoccus from the oxidation of NADH to the reduction of O2. 6. What is the ΔG and why is it important? Given the PMF or the midpoint potentials of the some electron donors and acceptors, calculate the ΔG. G is the free energy of a reaction and measures how favorably or unfavorably a
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study guide 2 - 1.What is the elemental composition of the...

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