4300 review II

4300 review II - Prokaryotes o Organisms without membrane...

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Prokaryotes o Organisms without membrane bound organelles or a nucleus Prokaryotic Diversity o Morphological diversity = SHAPE o Functional diversity = PATHOGENESIS/ METHYLOTROPHS/ NITRIFIRERS o Evolutionary diversity = GENOME/ANCESTORS leads to a NATURAL SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION Isotope Fractionation o What is isotope fractionation? Given the ratio of 13C/12C in a sample and the PDD standard, calculate the Δ13C. If the Δ13C is very low, the material is enriched in 13C or 12C? o C12:C13 = 89.4:1 ratio o Most Carbon today is in the form of HCO3, CO2, CO3 o Measured by MASS SPECTROCOPY o Standard = PeeDee belemnite w/ Carbon o Very small changes C13/C12 fraction make very large changes in Parts/Thousand Biomass o Increase Biomass, Increase PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY production of organic compounds from atmospheric or aquatic carbon dioxide through the process of photosynthesis All life on earth is directly or indirectly reliant on primary production. organisms responsible are known as primary producers or autotrophs form the base of the food chain. terrestrial = plants aquatic = algae o Lots of inorganic matter 80% > 20% organic matter on earth o Biomass (inorganic) is high today as well as 2 billion years ago o Organic carbon has changed due to the process of burying o In terms of biomass animals DO NOT matter o Plants and Microorganisms drive the ecosystem now o 3 billion years ago plants drove ecosystem Stromatalites Ancient rocks common 2.7 bya Modern lifeforms at that time Active bacteria on top of the rock Grows at the surface of h2o and doesn’t get taller unless there’s a change in h2o level Earliest record of life 500 m.y.a SUDDEN DROP o Long period of PPROKARYOTIC EVOLUTION
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Natural Classification o Pros: Explanatory Predictive Conceptual Follows and adds to what is a prokaryote Nomenclature of Prokaryotes o All spp. Named by binary combination Genus, specific epithet o Type Strain Living cultures descended from a strain Maintained in pure culture Characteristically should match those in orginal description Doesn’t have to be typical of that organism o Just serves as a reference point, if later revised o Neotype Strain, if type strain is lost Should have similar properties to orginal o ALL Higher taxa have a type chosen from the LOWER taxa Ex: a genus has a type species, an order has a type genus Species only rank “consensus of workers in many different fields” o Publishing 2 Ways: Approved Lists (before1980) Validation List of IJSB (after 1980 in Journal of Systemic Bacteriology) Why is publishing Important? o
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4300 review II - Prokaryotes o Organisms without membrane...

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