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MCDB 101A Midterm 1

MCDB 101A Midterm 1 - M CDB 101A Midter m 1 Genetics the...

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MCDB 101A Midterm 1 Genetics: the science that deals with the structure and function of genes and their transmission from one generation to the next (heredity). Contains four major subdivisions o Transmission: “classical” genetics i.e. how genes are transmitted and how the recombine o Molecular: deals with molecular structure and function of genes o Population: heredity in groups of individuals for traits that are determined by one or only a few genes o Quantitative: studying the effects of many genes working simultaneously What is the difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes? o Eukaryotes have a nucleus , histones , and membrane- bound organelles but prokaryotes do not o Large molecules enter the cell of eukaryotes by endocytosis while then enter cells of prokaryotes by pores in the cell o Eukaryotes have multiple, linear chromosomes while prokaryotes have a single, circular chromosome o Mechanisms of transcription occur inside a membrane bound organelle in eukaryotes but not in prokaryotes Key structural features of E. Coli (a model prokaryotic organism) o Capsule: gelatinous surrounding of outer membrane o Outer membrane o Cell wall o Plasma membrane o Nucleoid region o Ribosomes o Pili: many small extensions in the capsule that beat to help move the cell o Flagellum: larger pili, cell usually only has one or two Gene/cistron: basic unit of hereditary material o Three parts to every gene Promoter: sequence upstream of the start of the gene that encodes the RNA Interacts with RNA Pol and the way it interacts with it spatially defines direction of transcription RNA coding sequence Terminator: specifies where transcription stops Genome: all chromosomal genes in a organism o A viral genome, for example, can consist of double stranded DNA, double stranded RNA, single stranded DNA,
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or single stranded RNA Locus: physical location of a gene within a genome Allele: an alternate form of the gene Genotype: allelic composition of an organism Phenotype: physical outcome of a given genotype Haploid: one complete set of genes Diploid: two complete sets of genes Merozygote: a partial diploid, had multiple copies of some Bacteriophage: Bacterial virus, made up of a protein head that contains the virus DNA connected to a protein sheath that hold the tail fibers. Nucleotide: combination of a nucleoside with a phosphate Nucleoside: a sugar combined with either a purine or a Wild type: the allelic form of a gene that is most prevalent in the “wild” population Mutation: a genetic alteration that is usually observed in a change of phenotype Mutant: an organism that has one or more mutation o Term may be applied to genes that contain a mutation or a protein coded by a mutant gene Reverse mutation: aka Reversion , a second mutation that restores a mutant cell to the wild type genotype Qualities that make a good model organism o Short life cycle o Mating produces large number of offspring
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MCDB 101A Midterm 1 - M CDB 101A Midter m 1 Genetics the...

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