05_416M_Sediment_Transport_handout

# 05_416M_Sediment_Transport_handout - So What do we need to...

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So What do we need to know Flow types Flow processes How these control sediment movement or control/influence sedimentation How these are represented in the rock record To begin: What forces control the behavior of fluids: Inertial forces Gravitational forces Viscous forces 1

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2 Fluid (def): Cannot withstand any tendency by a deviatoric stress to deform it (i.e., has no strength) Gas – loose configuration of molecules - AIR Liquid – tighter configuration of molecules. Can form a free surface. - WATER Properties of Fluid relevant to the study of sediment transport ρ = density (mass per unit volume) (water vs air) μ = dynamic viscosity (a measure of the internal friction of a fluid) has units of stress/strain rate → Pa/(1/t) = N s/m 2 = Pa s suppress turbulence – erosion and entrainment Sediment Transport and Fluid Flow
3 s m m kg ms kg 2 3 = = ρ μ υ Air μ ~ 10 -5 Pa s Water (20°C) μ = 10 -3 Pa s Ice μ ~ 10 10 Pa s Air ρ ~ 1 kg/m 3 Water ~ 10 3 kg/m 3 Ice ρ ~ 10 3 kg/m 3 Properties of Flow relevant to the study of sediment transport U L = scale velocity = scale length L g U Fr = L U = Re Kinematic viscosity (flux)

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4 Reynolds Number Difference in laminar and turbulent flow arise from the ratio of INERTIAL FORCES to VISCOUS FORCES INERTIAL FORCES are related to the scale of velocity of fluids in motion and
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05_416M_Sediment_Transport_handout - So What do we need to...

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