Lecture-11_stratigraphy - Lecture 11. GEO416M Fall 2010...

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1 Lecture 11. GEO416M – Fall 2010 Overview of Stratigraphic Principles and Techniques of Stratigraphic Correlation Class reading from Boggs, Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy Chapter 12: p.399-406; p.413-427. Chapter 13: p.458; p.462-476. Chapter 14: p.478-486; p.502-511 Chapter 15: p.513-532; p.538-549.
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2 Stratigraphy = Study of rock strata These strata preserve an integrated response of depositional systems to tectonics, sediment flux, sea level, subsidence, climate, and other environmental forcings. Strata are classified with respect to any one of many characteristics. For example: classification based on : Lithology “lithostratigraphy” Fossil content “biostratigraphy” Age “chronostratigraphy” Chemical composition “chemostratigraphy” Magnetic properties “magnetostratigraphy” Stratal geometries “sequence stratigraphy” Formation = Lithologically distinctive, relatively homogeneous succession of strata that is mappable at 1:25,000 scale “Homogeneous” means relatively constant facies.
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3 Facies = Body of rock with specified set of characteristics Physical/chemical attributes “lithofacies” Fossil assemblages “biofacies” Tectonic significance ‘tectofacies” Facies models are used to guide predictions of expected properties for a deposit at a new study site.
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History of Stratigraphic Concepts Superposition : Steno, 1669 Law of superposition: In any succession of strata, not subsequently disturbed or overturned since deposition, younger rocks lie above older rocks. Unconformities : Hutton, 1788 Surfaces separating strata that are not in immediate order of age (i.e. represent missing time). Faunal Succession : Smith, 1800 Law of faunal succession: Rocks formed during a particular interval of geologic time can be recognized and distinguished by their fossil content from rocks formed during other time intervals. Facies Succession
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2011 for the course GEO 416M taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Lecture-11_stratigraphy - Lecture 11. GEO416M Fall 2010...

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