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Lecture-16_deepwater_v2 - Lecture 16 GEO416M Fall 2010...

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1 Lecture 16: GEO416M – Fall 2010 Deep-Water Depositional Systems Class reading from Boggs, Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy : p.349 - 364. In the submarine environment , particularly the continental slope , patterns of sediment erosion and deposition are governed to sediment-gravity flows . Since these currents move through water, gravity drives these flows by acting on the “excess” density of the water+sediment mixtures ; that fraction of the bulk density that exceeds the density of water. Turbidity Currents (~ <10 % suspended sediment  by volume) Debris Flows (~ 50:50 sediment and water  by volume)  
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2 A type example of a deepwater-depositional system; the Brazos-Trinity Slope System (Prather et al., in press)
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3 Topography, depositional patterns and structural deformation associated with the Brazos-Trinity slope system and its 5 minibasins. Active structural deformation is the product of motion of the Luann Salt. Location map and seismic cross-section through the B-T system. (Pirmez et al., in press)
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Badalini et al., 2000 Seascape development is often the product of competition between deforming substrate and sediment-transporting flows (note spatial change in patterns of deposition and erosion below). 4 Seismic section through self-edge delta delivering sediment to Basin 1 during the last sea-level lowstand. (Prather et al., in press)
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5 (above) Seismic cross section through Basin 2 deposit. All of this sediment accumulated during the past 20,000 yrs. (left) Maps of deposit thickness Figure (a) = the 6a deposit shown in cross section above. Figure (b) = the 6b deposit shown in cross section above. Figures (c) & (d) = the 6c deposit shown in cross section above. Notice the changes in sedimentation pattern as deposits fill in the pre-existing Basin 2 topography. Basin 2 of the linked, Brazos- Trinity Slope System. (Prather et al., in press) (Beaubouef & Friedmann, 2001)
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6 Low Sediment-Concentration  Turbidity Currents (~ < 1 % suspended sediment by volume) High Sediment-Concentration  Turbidity Currents (~1 - 10 % suspended sediment by volume) Debris Flows (~ 50:50 sediment and water )   Sediment-Gravity Flows
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7 Initiation and Evolution of Sediment-Charged Submarine Flows Hyperpycnal  Flow Slope Failures Low-Sediment  Concentration High-Sediment  Concentration Slide and  Slump Debris Flow Extensive Internal Deformation Minor Internal Deformation Turbidity Current Sediment  Gravity Flows Rapid Addition of Water, Reducing
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