Test 3 Study Guide - BIOL 1300 BODY SYSTEMS Unit 3 Exam...

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Unformatted text preview: BIOL 1300 BODY SYSTEMS Unit 3 Exam Review The division of the nervous system that exclusively controls skeletal muscles is the Ans: somatic nervous system The part of the nervous system that consists of ALL of the spinal nerves and cranial nerves is the Ans: peripheral nervous system Fibers that conduct impulses away from the cell body are called Ans: axons Neurons that conduct impulses to the spinal cord and brain are called Ans: afferent neurons The membrane surrounding an entire nerve is called the Ans: epineurium A collection of neuron cell bodies outside the central nervous system is called a Ans: ganglion What are some examples of a neuroglial cell? Ans: Schwann Cell, Astrocyte Before the start of the action potential, the neuron membrane is Ans: at rest Potassium channels open late in the action potential to cause membrane Ans: repolarization The outermost membrane of the myelin sheath is called the Ans: neurilemma Candas BIOL 1300 Body Systems Exam 3 Review Neurotransmitters bind to specific proteins on the postsynaptic membrane called Ans: receptors The central canal of the spinal cord contains Ans: cerebrospinal fluid The correct order of impulse conduction through a reflex arc is Ans: receptor, sensory neuron, interneuron, motor neuron, effector The cell bodies of sensory neurons are found in the Ans: dorsal root ganglion The hippocampus and the reticular formation are part of the Ans: limbic system The “little brain” located beneath the posterior part of the cerebral hemispheres is the Ans: cerebellum The function of the dural sinuses is to Ans: drain blood from the brain The layer of the meninges that most closely follows the contours of the brain is the Ans: pia mater Cerebrospinal fluid flows from the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle via the Ans: foramina The vascular network that forms the cerebrospinal fluid is called the Ans: choroid plexus Which of the following is NOT associated with the ventricles? Ans: arachnoid villi Candas BIOL 1300 Body Systems Exam 3 Review A deep groove in the brain is called a Ans: fissure The central sulcus separates the Ans: frontal and parietal lobes The lobe of the cerebrum that lies posterior to the parietal lobe and extends over the cerebellum is the Ans: occipital lobe The visual area of the cortex is in the Ans: occipital lobe Difficulty in forming words would indicate an injury to the Ans: Broca area The autonomic nervous system and the pituitary gland are controlled by the Ans: hypothalamus The midbrain and the medulla oblongata are connected via the Ans: pons The cranial nerve that supplies motor impulses to the tongue is the Ans: hypoglossal nerve Bleeding into the space between the dura mater and the skull results in a(n) Ans: epidural hematoma Name a special sense? Ans: taste Name a general sense? Ans: proprioception Candas BIOL 1300 Body Systems Exam 3 Review Which area of the tongue is particularly sensitive to sweet tastes? Ans: the tip The middle, pigmented layer of the eye is the Ans: choroid The blind spot is also called the Ans: optic disk The point of sharpest vision is called the Ans: fovea centralis Tears are produced in the Ans: lacrimal gland The receptors for vision are the Ans: rods and cones Rhodopsin is the pigment found in the Ans: rods The extrinsic eye muscle that circles the bottom part of the eyeball is the Ans: inferior oblique Which of the following is an intrinsic eye muscle? Ans: iris The scientific name for the eardrum is the Ans: tympanic membrane The ossicle of the ear that is in contact with the tympanic membrane is the Ans: malleus Candas BIOL 1300 Body Systems Exam 3 Review Ceruminous glands secrete Ans: wax The receptor for hearing is the Ans: organ of Corti Cranial nerve VIII is named the Ans: vestibulocochlear nerve The receptors that detect the position of the head in relation to gravity are the Ans: maculae The receptors for pain are Ans: free nerve endings A hereditary disorder that prevents normal vibration of the stapes is Ans: otosclerosis The large gland located on either side of the larynx is the Ans: thyroid gland The islets of Langerhans are found in the Ans: pancreas Which hormone opposes the effects of parathyroid hormone? Ans: calcitonin Cortisol is produced by the Ans: adrenal cortex Which of the following is a gonadotropic hormone? Ans: luteinizing hormone Candas BIOL 1300 Body Systems Exam 3 Review The target tissues for oxytocin are the Ans: uterus and breasts Which of the following is NOT a product of the adrenal gland? Ans: progesterone The gland that produces calcitonin is the Ans: thyroid gland Deficiency of thyroxine in an adult can result in Ans: myxedema A hormone that increases sodium loss and lowers blood pressure is Ans: atrial natriuretic peptide The phrenic nerve arises from the Ans: cervical plexus Candas BIOL 1300 Body Systems Exam 3 Review ADDITIONAL REVIEW CONCEPTS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands are NOT controlled voluntarily Skeletal muscles are controlled by Somatic nerves Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are the divisions of autonomic (or visceral) nervous system Interneurons relay information within the central nervous system Endoneurium is the connective tissue that covers individual nerve fibers Schwann cells produce myelin sheath Action potential is the sudden electrical change on the neural cell membrane The synpases is the point at which nerve impulses are transferred from one neuron to another Dendrites are the neuron fibers that conduct impulses to the neural cell body Sodium and potassium ions are involved in depolarization and repolarization of neuronal membrane Know the ear structure and the function of each part The receptors for hearing are located in the cochlea Dynamic equilibrium is detected by semicircular canals in inner ear Iris dilates or constricts to regulate the amount of light hitting to retina where rods and cones the two types of cells with receptors for vision are located in the eye Tears are produced by lacrimal gland Know the general senses and special senses Know the brain stem parts (midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata) Know the layers of the meninges (dura mater, arachnoid and pia mater) Cerebrospinal fluid is produced in ventricles Know the disorders involving cranial nerves Pituitary is the master endocrine gland Pineal gland regulates sleep‐wake cycles in human body • Candas BIOL 1300 Body Systems Exam 3 Review ...
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