L27 - Wednesday,December1,2010 WhenThingsGoWrong:Cancer Reading Chapter18,,pages717729 Objectives physiology. o o o Early

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Wednesday, December 1, 2010 When Things Go Wrong: Cancer Reading: Chapter 18, pages 638-646  and   Chapter 20, pages 717-729 Objectives Regulation of cell growth is one of the most important aspects of animal  physiology. Cancer results when cells evade the normal control mechanisms.  o Early changes involve loss of growth control. Later stages that lead to  malignant  tumors allow cancer cells to become more aggressive: these cells  secrete factors that attract blood vessels, as well as factors that degrade  tissue barriers and allow malignant cells to invade foreign tissues. o The development of cancer is a microevolutionary process . Unlike free- living cells, the cells in a metazoan organism cooperate with one another.  But mutant cells that "cheat" can prosper at the expense of their neighbors,  and will be favored by natural selection. o Each cancer arises from a single mutant cell. Cancer cells are genetically different from normal cells in that cancer cells contain  oncogenes o An oncogene may produce either a mutant protein , or too much of a   normal protein . o Some oncogenes were identified by virtue of their presence in oncogenic  viruses. Example: avian sarcoma virus contains three viral genes plus the  src  oncogene. The src protein has an SH2 domain. (In fact, "SH2" means  "S rc H omology 2 ".) o Other oncogenes were identified by isolating DNA from a human tumor,  transfecting  fragments of this DNA into normal mouse cells, and isolating 
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2011 for the course BIOS 20182 taught by Professor Lahn during the Spring '11 term at UChicago.

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L27 - Wednesday,December1,2010 WhenThingsGoWrong:Cancer Reading Chapter18,,pages717729 Objectives physiology. o o o Early

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