Handout+Chap.+9

Handout+Chap.+9 - The Phenomenon of Memory Memory is any...

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1 1 Memory Chapter 9 2 The Phenomenon of Memory Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time. It is our ability to store and retrieve information. 3 Flashbulb Memories 4 Stages of Memory Sensory Memory (iconic, echoic,…) Short-Term Memory temporary working memory Long-Term Memory Permanent storage of information input 5 Working Memory 6 Automatic Processing • Well-practiced tasks become automatized ) – Automatic processes: •No capacity limitations •Do not require attention •Very difficult to modify
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2 7 Effortful Processing – Controlled processes: •Limited capacity •Require attention •Flexible 8 Rehearsal Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition. Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables : TUV YOF GEK XOZ Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) http://www.isbn3-540-21358-9.de 9 Rehearsal The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2. 10 Spacing Effect Distributing rehearsal ( spacing effect ) is better than practicing all at once. Robert Frost’s poem could be memorized with fair ease if spread over time. ACQUAINTED WITH THE NIGHT Robert Frost I have been one acquainted with the night. I have walked out in rain — and back in rain. I have outwalked the furthest city light. … … 11 Serial Position Effect 1. TUV 2. ZOF 3. GEK 4. WAV 5. XOZ 6. TIK 7. FUT 8. WIB 9. SAR 10. POZ 11. REY 12. GIJ Better recall Better recall Poor recall 12 Encoding Meaning Q: Did the word begin with a capital letter? Structural Encoding Q: Did the word rhyme with the word “weight”? Q: Would the word fit in the sentence? He met a __________ in the street. Phonemic Encoding Semantic Encoding “Whale” Intermediate Deep Shallow
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3 13 Results 14 Visual Encoding Mental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. Showing adverse effects of tanning and smoking in a picture may be more powerful than simply talking about it. Both photos: Ho/AP Photo 15 Mnemonics •Any kind of memory system or aid to improve memory – Ex: ROY G. BIV – Ex: Platyhelminthes – Ex: KPCOFGS for chain of biological classification 16 Storage: Retaining Information Storage is at the heart of memory. Three stores of memory are shown below: Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding Retrieval Encoding Events Retrieval 17 Sensory Memory Sensory Memory Working
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Handout+Chap.+9 - The Phenomenon of Memory Memory is any...

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