y54 - Chapter 9 Memory Table of Contents Exit Memory: Some...

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Chapter 9 Memory Table of Contents Exit
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Memory: Some Key Terms Memory: Active system that stores, organizes, alters, and recovers (retrieves) information Encoding: Converting information into a useable form Storage: Holding this information in memory Retrieval: Taking memories out of storage Table of Contents Exit
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Fig. 9.1 In some ways, a computer acts like a mechanical memory system. Both systems process information, and both allow encoding, storage, and retrieval of data. Table of Contents Exit
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Sensory Memory Storing an exact copy of incoming information for a few seconds (either what is seen or heard); the first stage of memory Icon: A fleeting mental image or visual representation Echo: After a sound is heard, a brief continuation of the activity in the auditory system Table of Contents Exit
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Short-Term Memory (STM) Storing small amounts of information briefly Working Memory: Part of STM; like a mental “scratchpad” Selective Attention: Focusing (voluntarily) on a selected portion of sensory input (e.g., selective hearing) Phonetically: Storing information by sound; how most things are stored in STM Very sensitive to interruption or interference Table of Contents Exit
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Long-Term Memory (LTM) Storing information relatively permanently Stored on basis of meaning and importance Table of Contents Exit
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Fig. 9.2 Remembering is thought to involve at least three steps. Incoming information is first held for a second or two by sensory memory. Information selected by attention is then transferred to temporary storage in short-term memory. If new information is not rapidly encoded, or rehearsed, it is forgotten. If it is transferred to long-term memory, it becomes relatively permanent, although retrieving it may be a problem. The preceding is a useful model of memory; it may not be literally true of what happens in the Table of Contents Exit
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Short-Term Memory Concepts Digit Span: Test of attention and short-term memory; string of numbers is recalled forward or backward Typically part of intelligence tests Magic Number 7 (Plus or Minus 2): STM is limited to holding seven (plus or minus two) information bits at once Information Bit: Meaningful single piece of information Table of Contents Exit
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More Short-Term Memory Concepts Recoding: Reorganizing or modifying information in STM Information Chunks: Bits of information that are grouped into larger chunks Maintenance Rehearsal: Repeating information silently to prolong its presence in STM Elaborative Rehearsal: Links new information with existing memories and knowledge in LTM Good way to transfer STM information into LTM Table of Contents Exit
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Long-Term Memory Concepts Constructive Processing: Updating long-term memories on basis of logic, guessing, or new information Pseudo-Memories: False memories that a person believes are true or accurate Memory Structure: Pattern of associations among bits of information in LTM Redintegrative Memory: Memories that are
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y54 - Chapter 9 Memory Table of Contents Exit Memory: Some...

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