y20 - Chapter 16 Psychological Disorders Table of Contents...

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Table of Contents Exit Chapter 16 Psychological Disorders
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Table of Contents Exit What is Normal? Psychopathology: Scientific study of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders Subjective Discomfort: Feelings of anxiety, depression, or emotional distress Statistical Abnormality: Having extreme scores on some dimension, such as intelligence, anxiety, or depression Social Nonconformity: Disobeying societal standards for normal conduct; usually leads to destructive or self-destructive behavior
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Table of Contents Exit What is Normal? (cont.) Situational Context: Social situation, behavioral setting, or general circumstances in which an action takes place Is it normal to walk around strangers naked? If you are in a locker room and in the shower area, yes! Cultural Relativity: Judgments are made relative to the values of one’s culture
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Table of Contents Exit Fig. 16.1 The number of people displaying a personal characteristic may help define what is statistically abnormal. Social non-conformity does not automatically indicate psychopathology.
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Table of Contents Exit Fig. 16.2 This MRI scan of a human brain (viewed from the top) reveals a tumor (dark spot). Mental disorders sometimes have organic causes of this sort. However, in many instances no organic damage can be found. © Scott Camazine/Photo Researchers
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Table of Contents Exit Clarifying and Defining Abnormal Behavior (Mental Illness) Maladaptive Behavior: Behavior that makes it difficult to function, to adapt to the environment, and to meet everyday demands Mental Disorder: Significant impairment in psychological functioning Those with mental illness lose the ability to adequately control thoughts, behaviors, or feelings
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Table of Contents Exit Clarifying and Defining Abnormal Behavior (Mental Illness) (cont.) Psychotic Disorder: Severe psychiatric disorder characterized by hallucinations and delusions, social withdrawal, and a move away from reality Organic Mental Disorder: Mental or emotional problem caused by brain pathology (i.e., brain injuries or diseases) Substance Related Disorders: Abuse or dependence on a mind- or mood-altering drug, like alcohol or cocaine Person cannot stop using the substance and may suffer withdrawal symptoms if they do
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Table of Contents Exit Clarifying and Defining Abnormal Behavior (Mental Illness) (cont.) Mood Disorder: Disturbances in mood or emotions, like depression or mania Anxiety Disorder: Feelings of fear, apprehension, anxiety, and behavior distortions
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Exit Fig. 16.5 The Mad Hatter, from Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. History provides numerous examples of psychosis caused by toxic chemicals. Carroll’s Mad Hatter character is modeled after an occupational disease of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In that era, hatmakers were heavily exposed to mercury used in the preparation of felt. Consequently, many suffered brain damage and became psychotic, or “mad” (Kety, 1979). © Bettmann/CORBIS
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y20 - Chapter 16 Psychological Disorders Table of Contents...

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