y41 - Myers PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 9 Memory James A....

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Unformatted text preview: Myers PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 9 Memory James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers Memory Memory persistence of learning over time via the storage and retrieval of information Flashbulb Memory a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event Memory Memory as Information Processing similar to a computer write to file save to disk read from disk Encoding the processing of information into the memory system Memory Storage the retention of encoded information over time Retrieval process of getting information out of memory Memory Sensory Memory the immediate, initial recording of sensory information in the memory system Working Memory focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information Memory Short Term Memory activated memory that holds a few items briefly look up a phone number, then quickly dial before the information is forgotten Long Term Memory the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system A Simplified Memory Model External events Sensory memory Short-term memory Long-term memory Sensory input Attention to important or novel information Encoding Encoding Retrieving Encoding- Getting Information In Encoding Effortful Automatic Encoding Automatic Processing unconscious encoding of incidental information space time frequency well-learned information word meanings we can learn automatic processing reading backwards Encoding Effortful Processing requires attention and conscious effort Rehearsal conscious repetition of information to maintain it in consciousness to encode it for storage Encoding Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables TUV ZOF GEK WAV the more times practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions to relearn on Day 2 Spacing Effect distributed practice yields better long term retention than massed practice Encoding 20 15 10 5 8 16 24 32 42 53 64 Time in minutes taken to relearn list on day 2 Number of repetitions of list on day 1 Encoding-Serial Position Effect 12 Percentage of words recalled 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Position of word in list 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 What Do We Encode? Semantic Encoding encoding of meaning including meaning of words Acoustic Encoding encoding of sound especially sound of words Visual Encoding encoding of picture images Encoding Encoding Imagery mental pictures a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding Mnemonics memory aids especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices Encoding Chunking organizing items into familiar, manageable...
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y41 - Myers PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 9 Memory James A....

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