y42 - Myers PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter8 Learning...

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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 8 Learning James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers
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Learning   Learning relatively permanent change in  an organism’s behavior due to   experience experience (nurture) is the key to  learning
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Association We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that  occur in sequence Aristotle 2000 years ago John Locke and David Hume 200 yrs ago Associative Learning learning that two events occur together two stimuli a response and its consequences
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Association Learning to  associate  two events Event 1 Event 2 Sea snail associates splash with a tail shock Seal learns to expect a snack for its showy antics
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Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning We learn to  associate two  stimuli Two related events: Lightning Stimulus 1 Thunder Stimulus 2 Result after repetition We see lightning Stimulus We wince anticipating thunder Response
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Operant Conditioning We learn to  associate a   response and  its  consequence Response: Pushing vending machine button Consequence: Receiving a candy bar
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Behaviorism John B. Watson   viewed psychology as objective  science generally agreed-upon consensus  today recommended study of behavior  without reference to unobservable  mental processes not universally accepted by all schools  of thought today
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Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Ivan Pavlov   1849-1936 Russian physician/ neurophysiologist Nobel Prize in 1904 studied digestive secretions
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Pavlov’s Classic Experiment Before Conditioning During Conditioning After Conditioning UCS (food in mouth) Neutral stimulus (tone) No salivation UCR (salivation) Neutral stimulus (tone) UCS (food in mouth) UCR (salivation) CS (tone) CR (salivation)
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Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Pavlov’s device  for recording  salivation
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Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Classical Conditioning organism comes to associate two stimuli lightning and thunder tone and food begins with a reflex a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus  that evokes the reflex neutral stimulus eventually comes to evoke  the reflex 
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Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) effective stimulus that unconditionally- automatically and naturally- triggers a  response Unconditioned Response   (UCR) unlearned, naturally occurring automatic  response to the unconditioned stimulus salivation when food is in the mouth  
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y42 - Myers PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter8 Learning...

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