y63 - Chapter 5 Sensation and Reality Table of Contents...

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General Properties of Sensory Systems Sensation: Information arriving from sense organs (eye, ear, etc.) Perception: Mental process of organizing sensations into meaningful patterns Data Reduction System: Any system that selects, analyzes, and condenses information Transducer: A device that converts energy from one type to another Table of Contents Exit
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Some More Key Terms Perceptual Features: Basic stimulus patterns Sensory Coding: Converting important features of the world into neural messages understood by the brain Sensory Localization: Type of sensations you experience depends on which area of the brain is activated Table of Contents Exit
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Psychophysics Absolute Threshold: Minimum amount of physical energy necessary for a sensation to occur Difference Threshold: A change in stimulus intensity that is detectable to an observer Just Noticeable Difference (JND): Any noticeable difference in a stimulus Weber’s Law: The amount of change needed to produce a constant JND is a constant proportion of the original stimulus intensity Table of Contents Exit
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Perceptual Defense and Subliminal Perception Perceptual Defense: Resistance to perceiving threatening or disturbing stimuli Subliminal Perception: Perception of a stimulus below the threshold for conscious recognition Table of Contents Exit
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Vision: The Key Sense Visible Spectrum: Part of the electromagnetic spectrum to which the eyes respond Lens: Structure in the eye that focuses light rays Photoreceptors: Light-sensitive cells in the eye Retina: Light-sensitive layer of cells in the back of the eye Easily damaged from excessive exposure to light (staring at an eclipse) Cornea: Transparent membrane covering the front of the eye; bends light rays inward Table of Contents Exit
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F ig. 5.3 The visible spectrum. Table of Contents Exit
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Fig. 5.1 Visual pop-out. (Adapted from Ramachandran, 1992b.) Pop-out is so basic that babies as young as 3 Table of Contents Exit
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Fig. 5.2 An artificial visual system. Table of Contents Exit
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Fig. 5.4 The human eye, a simplified view. Table of Contents Exit
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Fig. 5.6 The iris and diaphragm. Table of Contents Exit
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Animation: Right Brain/Left Brain Table of Contents Exit
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Vision Problems Hyperopia: Difficulty focusing nearby objects (farsightedness) Myopia: Difficulty focusing distant objects (nearsightedness) Astigmatism: Corneal, or lens defect that causes some areas of vision to be out of focus; relatively common Presbyopia: Farsightedness caused by aging Table of Contents Exit
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CNN – Visual Impairment & Artificial Eye Table of Contents Exit
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Fig. 5.5 Visual defects and corrective lenses: (a) A myopic (longer than usual) eye. The concave lens spreads light rays just enough to increase the eye’s focal length. (b) A hyperopic (shorter than usual) eye. The convex lens increases refraction (bending), returning the point of focus to the retina.
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This note was uploaded on 02/11/2011 for the course PSY 2012 taught by Professor Dobson during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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y63 - Chapter 5 Sensation and Reality Table of Contents...

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