y64 - Chapter 4 From Birth to Death: Life-Span Development...

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Chapter 4 From Birth to Death: Life-Span Development Table of Contents Exit
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Life Events Developmental Tasks: These must be mastered for optimal development (e.g., learning to read and adjusting to sexual maturity) Developmental Milestones: Notable events, markers, or turning points in personal development Psychosocial Dilemma: Conflict between personal impulses and the social world Table of Contents Exit
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Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas Stage One: Trust Versus Mistrust (Birth-1): Children are completely dependent on others Trust: Established when babies given adequate warmth, touching, love, and physical care Mistrust: Caused by inadequate or unpredictable care and by cold, indifferent, and rejecting parents Stage Two: Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt (1-3) Autonomy: Doing things for themselves Overprotective or ridiculing parents may cause children to doubt abilities and feel shameful about their actions Table of Contents Exit
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Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas (cont.) Stage Three: Initiative Versus Guilt (3-5) Initiative: Parents reinforce via giving children freedom to play, use imagination, and ask questions Guilt: May occur if parents criticize, prevent play, or discourage a child’s questions Stage Four: Industry Versus Inferiority (6-12) Industry: Occurs when child is praised for productive activities Inferiority: Occurs if child’s efforts are regarded as messy or inadequate Table of Contents Exit
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Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas (cont.) Stage Five (Adolescence): Identity Versus Role Confusion Identity: For adolescents; problems answering, “Who am I?” Role Confusion: Occurs when adolescents are unsure of where they are going and who they are Stage Six (Young adulthood): Intimacy Versus Isolation Intimacy: Ability to care about others and to share experiences with them Isolation: Feeling alone and uncared for in life Table of Contents Exit
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Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas (cont.) Stage Seven (Middle adulthood): Generativity Versus Stagnation Generativity: Interest in guiding the next generation Stagnation: When one is only concerned with one’s own needs and comforts Stage Eight (Late adulthood): Integrity Versus Despair Integrity: Self-respect; developed when people have lived richly and responsibly Despair: Occurs when previous life events are viewed with regret; experiences heartache and remorse. Table of Contents Exit
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Normal Childhood Problems Sleep disturbances Specific fears of the dark, dogs, school, or a particular room or person Most children will be overly timid at times, allowing bullying Temporary periods of dissatisfaction, when nothing pleases the child General negativism Clinging to a parent(s) or caregiver Reversals or regressions to more infantile behavior occur with almost all children (Chess, Thomas, & Birch, 1976) Table of Contents Exit
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Rivalry and Rebellion Sibling Rivalry: Competition among brothers and sisters Childhood Rebellion: Open defiance of adult authority Table of Contents Exit
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This note was uploaded on 02/11/2011 for the course PSY 2012 taught by Professor Dobson during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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y64 - Chapter 4 From Birth to Death: Life-Span Development...

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