Handout+Chap.+10 - Concept The mental grouping of similar...

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1 1 Thinking and Language Chapter 10 2 Concept The mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. There are a variety of chairs but their common features define the concept of a chair . 3 Category Hierarchies We organize concepts into category hierarchies. Courtesy of Christine Brune 4 Development of Concepts We form some concepts with definitions. For example, a triangle has three sides. Mostly, we form concepts with mental images or typical examples ( prototypes ). For example, a robin is a prototype of a bird, but a penguin is not. Triangle (definition) Bird (mental image) Daniel J. Cox/ Gety Images J. Messerschmidt/ The Picture Cube 5 Problem Solving There are two ways to solve problems: Algorithms: Methodical, logical rules or procedures that guarantee solving a particular problem. 6 Algorithms Algorithms, which are very time consuming, exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution. Computers use algorithms. S P L O Y O C H Y G If we were to unscramble these letters to form a word using an algorithmic approach, we would face 907,208 possibilities.
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2 7 Heuristics Heuristics are simple, thinking strategies that allow us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently. Heuristics are less time consuming, but more error-prone than algorithms. B2M Productions/Digital Version/Gety Images 8 Heuristics Heuristics make it easier for us to use simple principles to arrive at solutions to problems. S P L O Y O C H Y G S P L O Y O C H G Y Put a Y at the end, and see if the word begins to make sense. 9 Insight Insight involves a sudden novel realization of a solution to a problem. Humans and animals have insight. Grande using boxes to obtain food 10 Insight Brain imaging and EEG studies suggest that when an insight strikes (the “Aha” experience), it activates the right temporal cortex (Jung- Beeman, 2004). The time between not knowing the solution and realizing it is 0.3 seconds. From Mark Jung-Beekman, Northwestern University and John Kounios, Drexel University 11 Obstacles in Solving Problems Confirmation Bias: A tendency to search for information that confirms a personal bias. 2 – 4 – 6
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Handout+Chap.+10 - Concept The mental grouping of similar...

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