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final review - Fall 2010 Final Exam Lab Review ....

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Fall 2010 Final Exam Lab Review As always I hope this is useful. This is not all the material that could be asked about on the final exam but I will work to include the key topics. If you have any questions email me at: [email protected] Lab 1 Anatomical position (pg. 301 2) o Note: palms out Body Planes (outlined for a biped, ex. human) o Midsaggital and Sagittal(cuts body into right and left portions) o Transverse (cuts body into superior and inferior portions) o Frontal or Coronal (cuts into anterior and posterior) o Oblique (plane that is not parallel to any other of the above planes) Microscope components o Course focus – use while viewing in scanning and low power o Fine focus – Use once specimen has been found o Condenser – controls the amount of light hitting the specimen Magnification calculation o Total magnification Oculars = 10x so the total magnification is 10 * the objective magnification (4x, 10x, 40x, 100x) Lab 2 4 main tissue types o Epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscle Epithelial tissue Closely packed Avascular High regenerative capacity (fast division) Cell junctions present Supported by connective tissue Basement membrane (basal lamina and reticular lamina) Characterized based on 4 shapes and 3 arrangements Simple squamous – serves for diffusion (lung tissue, endothelium, mesothelium, kidneys) Simple cuboidal – serves for absorption and secretion Simple columnar – Present in GI tract and possess microvilli Stratified Squamous – Protective function in skin o Keratinized in dry surfaces o Non keratinized in wet surfaces Pseudostratified columnar – Ciliated columnar cells found in the trachea and have interspersed goblet cells Transitional – lines the urinary system, shape changes in response to pressure Connective tissue 3 basic elements
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o Ground substance , protein fibers , and cells GS and PF compose the matrix o Cells are separated by matrix o Classify type of connective tissue based on matrix composition o Vascularized (exception of cartilage) o Types of fibers Collagen – tough, inelastic Elastic – elastic, long and thin Reticular – small diameter collagen fibers, make frameworks o Loose connective tissue Areolar Contains all 3 types of fibers in an irregular loose configuration with many cells present Lamina propria is the vascularized source for most epithelial tissue Adipose Serves a protective and insulation function for many organs and gives shape to body surface o Dense Irregular connective tissue Strength and elasticity Dermis, submucosa of digestive tract o Dense regular connective tissue Very strong and inelastic Composes tendons and ligaments o Cartilage Hyaline – ribs, sternum, skeleton of human embryo, trachea 2 nd strongest type Fibrocartilage – pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs Strongest and least mobile, shock absorbing Elastic – external ear, larynx, epiglottis
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