final review

final review - Fall 2010 Final Exam Lab Review As always I...

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Unformatted text preview: Fall 2010 Final Exam Lab Review As always I hope this is useful. This is not all the material that could be asked about on the final exam but I will work to include the key topics. If you have any questions email me at: [email protected] Lab 1 Anatomical position (pg. 301‐2) o Note: palms out Body Planes (outlined for a biped, ex. human) o Midsaggital and Sagittal(cuts body into right and left portions) o Transverse (cuts body into superior and inferior portions) o Frontal or Coronal (cuts into anterior and posterior) o Oblique (plane that is not parallel to any other of the above planes) Microscope components o Course focus – use while viewing in scanning and low power o Fine focus – Use once specimen has been found o Condenser – controls the amount of light hitting the specimen Magnification calculation o Total magnification Oculars = 10x so the total magnification is 10 * the objective magnification (4x, 10x, 40x, 100x) Lab 2 4 main tissue types o Epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscle Epithelial tissue Closely packed Avascular High regenerative capacity (fast division) Cell junctions present Supported by connective tissue Basement membrane (basal lamina and reticular lamina) Characterized based on 4 shapes and 3 arrangements Simple squamous – serves for diffusion (lung tissue, endothelium, mesothelium, kidneys) Simple cuboidal – serves for absorption and secretion Simple columnar – Present in GI tract and possess microvilli Stratified Squamous – Protective function in skin o Keratinized in dry surfaces o Non‐keratinized in wet surfaces Pseudostratified columnar – Ciliated columnar cells found in the trachea and have interspersed goblet cells Transitional – lines the urinary system, shape changes in response to pressure Connective tissue 3 basic elements o o o o o o o o o o o Ground substance, protein fibers, and cells GS and PF compose the matrix Cells are separated by matrix Classify type of connective tissue based on matrix composition Vascularized (exception of cartilage) Types of fibers Collagen – tough, inelastic Elastic – elastic, long and thin Reticular – small diameter collagen fibers, make frameworks Loose connective tissue Areolar Contains all 3 types of fibers in an irregular loose configuration with many cells present Lamina propria is the vascularized source for most epithelial tissue Adipose Serves a protective and insulation function for many organs and gives shape to body surface Dense Irregular connective tissue Strength and elasticity Dermis, submucosa of digestive tract Dense regular connective tissue Very strong and inelastic Composes tendons and ligaments Cartilage Hyaline – ribs, sternum, skeleton of human embryo, trachea 2nd strongest type Fibrocartilage – pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs Strongest and least mobile, shock absorbing Elastic – external ear, larynx, epiglottis Weakest and most flexible Bone – stores minerals, aids in movement, supports soft tissue Blood Lab 3 Muscle tissue o Modified for contraction and relaxation o Produce heat, motion, body posture o 3 types Skeletal – striated, multinucleated , voluntary Small Filaments I Myofibrils I Muscle cell (myofibers), muscle fibers \/ Fascicles Large Muscle Cardiac – unique to the hearttissue, BRANCHED, involuntary, 1 or 2 centrally located nuclei Intercalated disks – formed by desmosomes and gap junctions between cardiac muscle cells allowing for the organized beat o Autorhythmic = inherent contractility Smooth – GI tract, Arrector Pili muscle in skin, have a spindle shape, 1 centrally located nucleus, NONSTRIATED Peristalsis – wave like contractions Nervous tissue o Neurons Flow of conduction: Dendrites cell body Axon Synaptic Endbulbs next neuron/ muscle/etc. Nerve Fiber is composed of many neurons (compared to a muscle fiber which has only one cell) Myelination speeds up conduction velocity Nodes of Ranvier – interspersed locations on axons without any myelination, location of many ion channels o Neuroglia 4 Types in CNS Astrocytes – regulate nutrient flow, compose the blood brain barrier (BBB), participate in metabolism of neurotransmitters Oligodendrocytes – Myelinate multiple axons Microglia – Phagocytic, clean up debris and microbes Ependymal cell – Produce and circulate (with cilia) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 2 Types in PNS Schwann cells – myelinate one axon Satellite cells – support neurons in ganglia Skin o Contains all 4 tissue types o 2 major layers: epidermis and dermis o Epithelial ‐‐ Layers of epidermis (deep to superficial) Stratum basale – single layer of cuboidal or columnar, cells divide and provide cells for layers above Stratum spinosum – Several layers thick, serve for protection for rough treatment, desmosomes present for stability Stratum granulosum – 3‐5 layers of flattened cells containing keratin granules (hence the name), degeneration of organelles Stratum lucidum – Only found on palms and soles of feet, 3‐5 layers of clear, flat, dead cells Stratum corneum – 25‐30 layers of flat dead cells, completely composed of keratin being continually sloughed off, serve as a barrier from the environment (sun, heat, microbes) o Skin appendages (epidermal origin composed of epithelial cells) Sweat glands – eccrine and apocrine glands o o o Sebaceous glands ‐ oil production Hair Nails Connective tissue of skin Dermis Papillary – composed of areolar tissue Reticular – composed of dense irregular connective tissue Dermal papilla – In the papillary region and make up the fingerprints Subcutaneous layer – composed of areolar and adipose tissue Muscle Tissue Smooth muscle in arrector pili muscles – causes goose bumps Nervous tissue 4 types (see diagram on pg. 301‐48) Free nerve endings – temperature and pain sensations Meissner’s Corpuscles – touch (in dermal papillae) Pacinian corpuscles – pressure sensation Merkel discs – tough (in stratum basale) Lab 4 Passive processes: 4 types o Simple diffusion Net diffusion – measurable movement of particles from high concentration to low concentration 5 factors that influence rate of diffusion Temperature (directly proportional) Surface area of the diffusion pathway (directly) Concentration gradient (directly) Molecular weight (inversely) Distance of diffusion (inversely) Osmosis ‐‐ Net diffusion of a water through a selectively permeable membrane Osmotic pressure – the pressure difference great enough to oppose osmosis, this is proportional to the number of OAPs in solution. Osmotically Active Particles (OAPs) – solutes that do not diffuse or diffuse without difficulty through a selectively permeable membrane leading to a tonicity difference (water moves to where there are more osmotically active particles) Ex. Na+ or K+ o Tonicity – measure of solution’s ability to change a cell’s shape by causing osmotic flow o Osmolarity – concentration of OAPs/liter of solution (for example NaCl has 2 OAPs per molecule whereas glucose has only 1 OAP) o Molarity – the number of grams molecular weight of a compound that is contained in 1 liter of solution (moles/liter) o Isotonic fluids – there are the same number of OAPs intracellularly as extracellularly thus there is no net diffusion of water into or out of the cell o o Hypotonic fluids – the solution contains a lower concentration (hence the prefix hypo) of OAPs than the cellular cytoplasm, the cell would thus take on water because the water for example an RBC would undergo hemolysis (a plant cell would not due to cell wall thus it would look normal) Hypertonic fluids – the solution contains a higher concentration of OAPs than the cellular cytoplasm, osmosis would lead to net flow of water out of the cell thus an RBC would shrink (termed crenation) and in a plant cell it is termed plasmolysis o Bulk flow Facilitated diffusion Active processes Active transport Endocytosis Exocytosis Lab 5 Bone – connective tissue o Three Bone Functions Body movements Supports and protects softer tissue Storage for minerals (calcium and phosphorous) o Bone classifications (based on shape) Long bone – longer than wide(clavicle, philanges) Short bone – cube shaped (carpals and tarsals) Flat bone – thin bones (cranial, ribs, sternum, scapula) Irregular bone – various shapes (facial bones, vertebrae, pelvis) Sesamoid – round and usually surrounded by tendons (patella) o Joints – classified by degree of movement Synarthrosis – immovable (skull) Amphiarthrosis – Slightly moveable (between vertebrae, public symphysis) Diarthrosis – freely moveable also called synovial joints (elbow, shoulder, etc.) o Axial skeleton – supports and protect CNS, protects organs of the thorax Skull – 22 bones, 11 pairs, many are joined at sutures Bones associated with the skull – hyoid bone (under tongue) and auditory ossicles (small bones in ear) Vertebrae – 33 vertebrae but 26 separated bones, 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral (5 fused to 1), and 4 coccygeal (all fuse into coccyx) **hint: think about the time of day people eat breakfast 7am, lunch 12pm, and dinner 5pm, from superior to inferior (7,12,5) Sternum – Manubrium, body, zyphoid process Ribs 12 pairs o 7 pairs – true ribs (attached to sternum) o 5 pairs – false ribs (either attach indirectly or not at all) o 3 indirect attachment 2 not at all (floating ribs) Appendicular skeleton Upper body: Pectoral Girdle – Not firmly attached to axial skeleton (clavicle, scapula) Arm – (Humorous) Forearm (ulna, radius) o **Hint—think about what bone (when in anatomical position) is on the OUTSIDE of the arm, it is the radius, just like the farthest point from the center of a circle Hand o Carpals (8 wrist bones) o Metacarpals (5 bones) o Phalanges (14 bones/hand) Lower body: Pelvic girdle – supports weight o Ileum, ischium, and pubis (all fused) Thigh (femur) Leg (fibula, tibia, patella) Foot o Tarsals (7 bones) o Metatarsals (5 bones) o Phalanges (15 bones/foot) Origin – stationary bone Insertion – more moveable bone Movements Pronation (medial rotation) vs. Supination (lateral rotation) Flexion (decrease angle) vs. Extension (increase angel) vs. Hyperextension (increase angle past anatomical position) Abduction (away from midline) vs. Adduction (towards midline) Rotation (rotation about an axis) vs. circumduction (distal end describes the motion of a circle) Lab 6 Motor unit – motor neuron, muscle fiber(s) it enervates 3 factors influencing the strength of muscle contraction o Recruitment – number of motor neurons recruited o Wave summation – strength of muscle contraction depends on the frequency of motor neuron stimulation o The amount of muscle stretch Neuromuscular junction o Action potential arrives o Release of calcium into pre‐synaptic neuron o Vesicles of acetylcholine (Ach) move to membrane o Ach released via exocytosis o Ach binds receptors on muscle membrane (trigger muscle action potential) Muscle twitch (brief contraction produced by a single electrical stimulus) See figure 2: myogram of a twitch contraction (pg. 301‐95) Note: Latent period – calcium entering Contraction period – force is increasing Relaxation period – calcium is leaving and the force is thus decreasing Muscle Contraction o See figure 3: myograms showing the effect of different frequencies of stimulation (pg. 301‐96) Treppe – full relaxation is permitted Unfused tetanus – Relaxation but not complete relaxation Complete tetanus – no relaxation is permitted Fatigue o Note: Threshold Stimulus – lowest voltage of electrical stimulation that produces a visible contraction of some muscle fibers in a whole muscle o o Lab 7 Action potential (all or none) Threshold reached causes action potentials o Sub‐threshold stimulus results in no action potential o Size of neuron conduction action potential dictates speed of conduction Large ‐‐ faster Motor neurons and sensory neurons for touch and proprioception Small ‐‐ slower Pain neurons and temperature sensations Compound action potential o Many neurons involved in signal transduction First curve is the faster neuron (larger), farther away is smaller and slower (see figure 1 on page 301‐101) Temperature and conduction speed o Direct correlation Conduction versus fiber diameter o Direct correlation Threshold versus diameter o Large diameter axons have a low threshold (indirect correlation) Tetradotoxin (TTX) o Blocks sodium channels very rapidly Ethyl ether o Increases membrane permeability due to swelling it o Disrupts membrane potential due to movement of ions o Acts relatively quickly Ouabain o Inhibits the sodium potassium pump o Acts the slowest of the drugs due to only dissipating the ion gradient gradually Novocain o Blocks sodium channels o Thereby permitting the use for inhibiting small neurons for pain Lab 8 4 main subdivisions of the brain o Brainstem ‐‐ medulla, pons, midbrain o Diencephalon ‐‐ thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal gland o Cerebellum provides ability for balance, coordination, and posture o Cerebrum Accounts for 7/8 total weight of the brain Meninges (3 layers) o Pai mater ‐‐ deepest layer, thus it adheres directly to the brain/spinal cord o Arachnoid mater ‐‐ middle layer that resembles a spider web o Dura mater ‐‐ most superficial meningeal layer which provides a tough durable covering o Subarachnoid space ‐‐ the space between the arachnoid and pia layer Brainstem o Responsible for basic functions (ex. breathing) Cerebral cortex o Primary somatosensory area (Post‐central gyrus) o Primary motor area (Pre‐central gyrus) Sensory areas o Primary somatosensory area (Post‐central gyrus) o Primary visual area (in occidpital lobe) o Primary auditory area (in temporal lobe) o Primary gustatory area (in parietal lobe) Motor areas o Primary motor area (Pre‐central gyrus) Controls voluntary contractions of skeletal muscle o Boca's speech area Controls larynx and pharynx Integration areas (association areas) o Premotor areas Controls skilled movement o Somatosensory association areas Integrates and interprets sensations o Visual association areas involved in recognition and evaluation of what is seen o Auditory association areas interprets the meaning of speech o Wernicke's area Formation of language (thought to speech) o Common integrative area (Gnostic area) integrates sensory interpretations from surrounding association areas allowing for a common thought Homunculus model o Represents the number of neurons controlling an area of the body For both sensory and motor functions Motor areas that have many neurons permit fine motor movements Genitals only present on sensory homunculus Lab 9 Circulation o Heart ‐‐> arteries ‐‐> arterioles ‐‐> capillaries ‐‐> venuoles ‐‐> veins ‐‐> back to heart Capillaries is where the gas exchange occurs Arteries are larger than arterioles just like veins are larger than venuoles o Three basic vascularized layers of the head Brain – receives blood from cerebral arteries Cerebral arteries receive blood from the right and left vertebral, and right and left internal carotids Meninges – Receives blood from the meningeal arteries Meningeal arteries receive blood from right and left vertebral, and right and left external carotid Head – Receives blood from the right and left external carotids o Brain blood supply (15‐20% of resting cardiac output) with 4 main arteries Right and left vertebral arteries Converge to form basilar arteries o Basilar arteries then empty to the Circle of Willis Right and left Internal carotid Delivers blood to the Circle of Willis Braches off middle cerebral arteries o Cerebral arteries Branch from Circle of Wills Anterior cerebral arteries (right and left) o Supply medial layer of frontal and parietal lobes Middle cerebral arteries (right and left) o Lateral surface of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes Posterior cerebral arteries (right and left) o Supply medial layer of temporal and occipital lobes o Venous circulation from the brain Veins drain into dural sinuses (note below the differences between sinuses and veins) Sinuses – do not have valves, have triangle cross sections, and have walls of sinuses lacking smooth muscle Superior saggital sinus Drains blood from cortex, and cerebrum Inferior saggital sinus Drains blood from the deeper areas of the brain Strait sinus joins the Superior and Inferior saggital sinuses Blood from the inferior and superior merges in the Confluence of sinuses Blood from confluence drains to right and left Transverse sinuses Blood from transverse right and left sinuses drains to the right and left internal jugular veins o Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) and the Ventricles Colorless, fluid filled cavity of brain and spinal cord Cushion of protection Provides nourishment Production Choroid plexus forms the CSF o Lined by Ependymal cells Flow of CSF Start in lateral ventricles Interventricular foramina (foramina of Monroe) 3rd ventricle Cerebral aquaduct of sylvious 4th ventricle To central canal or through 2 lateral/1medial apertures Apertures lead to the subarachnoid space Flow to brain/spinal cord Leaves the space via the arachnoid villi (granulations) o Protrude to superior saggital sinus (entering blood stream) replaced about 5‐6 times a day Blood brain barrier Oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose and some ions can get through the barrier Contributors o Endothelial cells lining the capillary walls Lack fenestrations (pores), cells joined by tight junctions (allowing the control of composition) o Capillaries and ependymal cells of choroid plexus Choroid plexus does contain fenestrations to allow for movement of CSF created there Capillaries around the choroid plexus has tight junctions o Astrocyte feet Regulate passage of substances in capillaries Exceptions o Hypothalamus and pituitary gland are NOT protected by the blood brain barrier Circumventricular organs Need to respond to changes in the blood chemical composition thus must be exposed to it Lab 10 4 attributes of sensation o Intensity Determined by the frequency of action potentials o Duration Depends on the length of time the stimulus persists o Modality A given sensor neuron is specific to a given stimulus (Only responds to one) o Localization Locating site of stimulus Back has a low sensory neuron density (large receptive field) Hand has a high sensory neuron density (small receptive field) 3 types of sensations Somatic Close to body surface Cutaneous receptors Proprioceptors Enter CNS via all spinal nerves and cranial nerve V o Visceral Baroreceptors Detect pressure and stretching of tissue Chemoreceptors Detect changes in chemical environment Nociceptors Pain Enter CNS via all spinal nerves and several cranial nerves o Special senses Olfaction (CNI) Vision (CNII) Hearing (CNVIII) Taste (CN VII,IX,X) Types of receptors o Tactile Meissner’s Corpuscles – rapidly adapting (touch) Hair root plexus – rapidly adapting (touch) Merkel disks – slowly adapting (touch and pressure) Ruffini corpuscles – slow adapting (stretching) Pacinian corpuscles – rapidly adapting (pressure) o Thermoreceptors Warm receptors Cold receptors Initially rapid and then slowly adapting o Nociceptors Slowly adapting pain receptors KNOW CRANIAL NERVES o Think about which CN’s are specific for sensory and which are mixed o Lab 11 Vision o Cranial nerve II (sensory only) o Know the structures and function of the eye Sclera – tough connective tissue, white superficial layer Choroid – Highly vascularized layer which adheres deep to the sclera, contains melanin Retina – Pigmented layer containing melanin, nervous tissue with three layers of retinal neurons Macula lutea (center of retina) and central fovea (center of macula lutea) – highest visual acuity because only cones are present here Optic nerve – CNII (sensory only) Cornea – Extension of sclera, transparent Iris – Smooth muscle, regulating pupil opening Lens – shape change allows for focusing on an image Suspensory Ligaments – Attach the lens to the ciliary body Ciliary body Ciliary process – aqueous humor production Ciliary muscles – move suspensory ligaments changing lens shape Anterior Cavity – filled with aqueous humor Anterior chamber Posterior chamber Vitreous Chamber – filled with aqueous humor o Faraway vision Ciliary muscle is relaxed Suspensory ligaments are taut Lens is FLAT o Close vision (Accommodation) Ciliary muscle is contracted Suspensory ligaments are less tense Lens is ROUND o Aqueous humor production Ciliary process (filters blood in capillaries) Posterior chamber between iris and lens through the pupil Anterior chamber Canal of Schlemm Back to the blood (repeat) Functions of aqueous humor Nourishment the avascular lens and cornea Contributes to intraocular pressure o Maintains shape of eyeball and hold retina in place Hearing o 3 divisions of the ear – Inner, Middle, and External ear External ear Auricle (pinna) External auditory meatus Tympanic membrane (eardrum) – connective tissue Middle ear Auditory (Eustacian) tube opening – connects nasopharynx to middle ear to equilize air pressure Auditory Ossicles o Malleus o Incus o Stapes These two structures separate the middle from inner ear o Oval window (where stapes is inserted) o Round window Inner ear Cochlea – contains auditory receptors for hearing Semicircular canals – vestibular receptors for dynamic equilibrium Vestibule – contains utricle and saccule for static and equilibrium Cochlea Transduced sound waves to neural impulses (CNVIII) with 3 tubes and 2 membranes Scala vestibuli – filled with perilymph Cochlear duct – filled with endolymph containing the organ of Corti Scala tympani – filled with perilymph Vestibular membrane – separates Scala vestibule from cochlear duct Basilar membrane – Separates cochlear duct from scala tympani Organ of Corti o Contains the receptors for hearing where the transduction occurs Hair cells – receptors converting mechanical force to electrical signal (receptor potential) Tectorial membrane – Static membrane on top of hair cells Basilar membrane – Dynamic membrane which moves in response to perilymph and endolymph vibrations o NOTE: remember sound waves are measured in hertz (Hz) = cycles/sec o Pathway of sound Directed by auricle and external auditory meatus Tympanic membrane Malleus, incus, and stapes (auditory ossicles) Oval window Perilymph of scala vestibule Vestibular membrane Endolymph of cochlear duct Pressure difference causes basilar membrane to move Causing hair cells to move They move against the Tectoral membrane Bending of the hair cells releases neurotransmitters leading to action potentials along CN VIII NOTE: sound waves of different frequencies act on different groups of hair cells allowing for different perceptions Equilibrium o Static Vestibule – utricle and saccule Macula – containing hair cells and supporting cells Otolithic membrane lies on hair cells Otoliths (calcium carbonate crystals) sit on otolithic membrane o Movement of otolith crystals allows for sensation of balance, as they bend the hair cells, neurotransmitters are released o Dynamic Semicircular canals o Contains Semicircular ducts which are lined with hair cells and supporting cells Cupula membrane lies on hair cells Bending of the stereocilia on hair cells results in release of neurotransmitters allowing for action potential generation in CN VIII Lab 12 Endocrinology o Hypothalamus (HT) and anterior pituitary (AP) connected via the infundibulum o HT – secretes releasing hormone and inhibiting hormones (which act on AP) Hypophyseal portal system Artery Capillary Vein Capillary Vein HT secreting Primary plexus capillaries Hypophyseal portal veins Infundibulum Secondary plexus capillaries of AP o AP – Secretes hGH, TSH, FSH, LH, Prolactin, and ACTH Secretion is controlled by the releasing hormones of hypothalamus o Posterior pituitary – Secretes ADH and oxytocin Does not secrete any hormones, only serves to store/release hormones Those that are stored in the posterior pituitary are secreted in the HT o Adrenal Gland Adrenal cortex (3 layers) Zona Glomerulus – secretes Mineralocorticoids such as aldosterone Zona Fasciculata – secretes Glucocorticoids (GC) such as cortisol and androgens, target tissue of ACTH Zona Reticularis – Secretes GC and androgens, target tissue of ACTH Adrenal medulla Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine o Thyroid gland (both secretes and stores mass amounts of hormones) Thyroid hormones are stored attached to Thyroglobulin protein 2 cell types Follicular cells (Cuboidal cells) – Manufacture Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) o NOTE: the T3 and T4 are simply the number of iodine atoms that form the hormone Parafollicular cells – Secrete calcitonin o Parathyroid gland – secretes parathyroid hormone (parathormone, PTH) Main regulator of calcium levels o Pancreas Exocrine Acinar cells – secrete digestive enzymes into pancreatic juice Endocrine Cells within Islets of Langerhan o Alpha cells – secrete glucagon o Beta cells – secrete insulin (75% of the cells in the islet) Endocrine Diseases and Abnormalities o Anterial pituitary Giantism (overproduce hGH as a child) Acromegaly (overproduce hGH as an adult) o Thyroid Graves’ disease – hyperthyroidism (autoimmune disease), enlarged thyroid Goiter – enlarged thyroid due to lack of I o Adrenal gland Cushing’s – overproduction of cortisol Addison’s – Underproduction of cortisol Adrenogenetal syndrome – overproduction of androgens results in masculinization of female Lab 13 EEG o o o o Measured EEG activity from occipital and frontal lobes Allows for localization of injury to the brain, brain lesions, localize seizure activity, and estimate brain injury of comatose patients A normal EEG can be present even when there is significant brain damage 4 types of waves Alpha – 20 to 60uV amplitude, frequency of 8‐13Hz Alpha block – occurs when one opens their eyes and fixes concentration on something Alpha waves are not present in children under 8 years old and 10% of the normal population does not have alpha waves, they can also disappear in a patient with Alzheimer’s Beta – 5 to 10uV amplitude, frequency of 13‐39Hz, these occur when one is alert and focused Theta – 10uV amplitude, frequency of 4‐8Hz, occur in kids, and adults who are frustrated/disappointed Delta – 20 to 200uV amplitude, frequency of 1‐5Hz, present in sleeping adults and the normal wave pattern for infants ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/11/2011 for the course BIO 301 taught by Professor Rupade during the Fall '09 term at Purdue.

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