h8 - The Roman Empire Caesar Augustus • 63 BC-14 AD •...

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Unformatted text preview: The Roman Empire Caesar Augustus • 63 BC-14 AD • Octavian was winner of 18 years civil war • Designated heir of Julius Caesar • Was of the family of Caesar (adopted) so he took the name Caesar • Given the name Augustus by the Senate Caesar Augustus • Beginning the Empire – Marked by the reign of Octavian – Returned to principles of the republic (in theory) – But, created important changes to make it work • Senate received power of nominal governing • Allowed free elections • Accepted title “ princeps civitatis ” or first citizen ("prince") – Initially offered to retire to private life • Held a variety of jobs but ruled effectively regardless of position – Auctoritas = prestige, power from trust, influence – Who else has had this kind of power? – How does a leader get this kind of power? Caesar Augustus • Beginning the Empire – Augustinian Code • Roman Law was rewritten and solidified • Basis of western laws today • Equity – Honest government – Added to the road system • 53,000 miles of paved roads – Postal system and other city infrastructure – Standard currency system – Improved harbors Caesar Augustus • Military – Reduced the size but created a permanent army – Territorial expansion • Purpose: to consolidate boundaries, ensure peace • Generalship given to loyalists—Agrippa and Tiberius • German defeat/consolidation (Herman the German) • Central Europe and the Balkans expansion • Spain consolidation • Africa, annexation of Egypt – Pax Romana • 60 million people in peace for more than 400 years Caesar Augustus • Worship of “Roma et Augustus” – Allowed the east and west unity of worship (each in their own way) – Didn’t push worship so as to not alienate local worship Caesar Augustus • Succession – No male heir – Adopted nephew, Tiberius – Smooth transition of leadership – Stable leadership despite inept emperors • Tiberius took the title "emperor" and all successors did the same • Succession was a problem for the entire time of the empire Principal Roman Emperors Julio-Claudians • Emperors who succeeded Caesar for 50 years • Tiberius – Ruled well if somewhat ineffective – Retired due to opposition • Caligula – Insane – Killed by troops • Claudius – Good administrator – Uncomfortable around people (lame and stuttered) • Nero – Mother killed Claudius for Nero – Nero killed his mother – Seneca and Burrus (advisors, died from Nero pressure) – Revolt and burning of the city – Committed suicide Seneca “Avoid shabby attire, long hair, an unkempt beard, an outspoken dislike for comfortable furnishings, and all other misguided and childish means of self- advertisement.” “It is not the man who has too little who is...
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h8 - The Roman Empire Caesar Augustus • 63 BC-14 AD •...

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