Unformatted text preview: Biodiversity Biodiversity Biodiversity: What is it? Biodiversity:
At its simplest level, biodiversity is the number and variety of species At on Earth = Species diversity on Estimated that between 5 and 15 million species currently exist Approximately 1.6 million identified Genetic diversity: variations among the members of a population Unique alleles Population diversity Community diversity increases biodiversity in an ecosystem Landscape diversity involves a group of interacting ecosystems An Example of Morphological Diversity Number of Described Species ~1.6 million described Where do we find it? Newly Discovered Biodiversity
Deep sea vents and beyond Seamounts Ice/Water Interface in Antarctica Soils beneath lakes mesofauna Patterns of Biodiversity
•Increases toward tropics • Decreases at higher latitudes
•Bird species decrease toward poles • Varies within a continent
•Mammal species in US mammal species Radiant Energy and species diversity Direct Value of Biodiversity (Species) Direct Medicinal Value Agricultural Value Crops Biological Pest Controls Pollinators Consumptive Use Value Wood Skins Examples of Medicines
Drug Barbaloin, aloe-emodin Atropine Codeine Colchicine Digitoxin Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine L-Dopa Menthol Morphine Quinine Reserpine Scopolamine Taxol Vinblastine, vincristine Source Aloe (Aloe spp.) Belladonna (Atopa belladonna) Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) Autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale) Common foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) Joint fir (Ephedra sinica) Velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana) Mint (Menta spcs.) Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) Yellow cinchona (Cinchona ledgeri ana) Indian snakeroot (Rauvolfia serpentina) Thornapple (Datura metel) Pacific Yew (Taxus brevifolia) Rosy periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) Us e antibacterial, skin conditions, purgative Relaxant, sedative Painkiller Anticancer agent Cardiac stimulant Asthma, emphysema, bronchiodilator, hay fever Parkinson’s disease Nasal congestion Painkiller Malaria Hypertension Sedative Anticancer Leukemia Indirect Value of Biodiversity (Species) Indirect Biogeochemical Cycles Waste Disposal Prevention of Soil Prevention Erosion Erosion Regulation of Climate Ecotourism Factors Involved in the Loss of Biodiversity Biodiversity Conservation Biodiversity
Hotspots 34 regions around world Contain about 20% of Earth’s species Represent only about 1% of Earth’s land area
California Madagascar California
Endemic Plant Species Endemic Threatened Birds Endemic Threatened Mammals Endemic Threatened Amphibians Extinct Species Human Population Density (people/km 2) 2.124 4 5 8 2 121 Endemism in Madagascar Endemism 52% birds 80% flowering plants 95% reptiles
Source: Ersts ©AMNH-CBC – 99% amphibians –100% primates
Source: Frey ©AMNH-CBC Ultimately it is About Choices Measures of species diversity
Conservation efforts often begin with species diversity • Measures -Species Richness: Based on presence or absence -Evenness Shannon (H′) Index: H′ = − Σ pi ln pi Simpson (D) Index: D = Σ ni (ni-1)/N(N-1) -Measures the probability that two individuals randomly selected from a sample will belong to the same species ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/12/2011 for the course BSC 2008 taught by Professor Blohm during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.
- Spring '08