Exam 4 - Study Guide

Exam 4 - Study Guide - E xam 4 Study Guide Food and Cancer...

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Exam 4 – Study Guide Food and Cancer 1. Stages of Cancer Development a. Cancer Initiation i. DNA alteration occurs in this relatively short phase b. Cancer Promotion i. DNA alterations are locked into the genetic material of cells over a period of months to over 10 years c. Cancer Progression i. Cells that can grow out of control appear. These cells spread to surrounding tissue and other sites 1. Causes a. Excess energy intake b. Lack of early detection c. Development of blood supply to the tumor 2. Carcinogenic Compounds in Foods a. Heterocyclic amines – cooked meat b. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons – smoked foods c. Nitrosamines – tobacco d. Hydrazine – rocket fuel e. Alkaloids - f. Mycotoxins - 3. Foods that may Promote Cancer a. Excessive food b. Excessive dietary fat c. Excessive charbroiled meats 4. Foods that may Fight Cancer a. Fruits and Vegetables b. Whole Grains c. Nuts and Seeds d. Roots and Tubers e. Herbs/Spices
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Food Toxicology a. Difference in Definition – Infection vs. Intoxification b. Infection i. Living cells are ingested and colonized and cause disease in the human host - cells themselves cause the disease – not the toxins c. Intoxication i. Food borne illness due to ingestion of food contaminated with microorganisms that have produced toxin in the food d. Intoxification (Toxico-infection) i. Food borne illness due to ingestion of bacteria that produce toxins once inside the small intestine 2. Sources of Naturally Occurring Toxins a. Most occur in plants i. Know the major three on the study guide ii. Cyanide = HCN iii. Know why we allow alflatoxin in foods - unavoidable b. Animal Toxins i. Examples – memorize names and affiliates 3. Toxins Produced During Processing a. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons i. Pesticides ii. Smoked foods –don’t get confused with heterocyclic b. Acrylamide c. Nitrosamines 4. Aspartame Controversy a. 14/15 studies concluded it had no link to carcinogens and did
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Exam 4 - Study Guide - E xam 4 Study Guide Food and Cancer...

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