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Anthropology Study Guide

Anthropology Study Guide - Anthropology Study Guide...

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Anthropology Study Guide Anthropology- the study of humanity at all times and in all places o Unique human Language Religion and symbolism Abstract thought Cultural and tool use Bipedalism Large brain : body o Subfield Physical- study of humans as biological organisms Paleontology- biological study of extinct humans Human variation- biological study of extant humans Primatology- biological study of human’s closest relatives Cultural- study of learned behavior patterns of extant groups Ethnography- study of all behaviors in one culture Ethnology- study of one behavior across many cultures Social anth- study of human social cultures Psychological anth- study of intelligence across many cultures Archaeology- study of learned behavior patterns of extinct groups Prehistoric- study of human material culture before written records Historic- study human material culture in cultures with written records Contract- study of excavating and preserving human material culture Linguistics- study of language Historical- the study of evolution and development of language Social- study of daily use of language in society Psycholinguistics- cross cultural study of language acquisition Induction- reasoning from detailed facts to general principles Deduction- reasoning from general to particular Hypothesis- educated guess Chromosome- double strands of DNA found in nucleus of every cell, carry genes on them Genes- shortened pieces of DNA which carry genetic code four our development, physical characteristics, and aging and death Karyotyping- science of counting and sorting chromosomes Asexual reproduction- simple cell division, need only one sex, produces identical copy Sexual reproduction- need two parents, unique recombination, variation Evolution- change in gene frequency of a breeding population from one generation to the next o Genetic drift- change in frequency as a result of a group of individuals becoming isolated from the larger group by chance Founders effect o Gene flow- change in gene frequency due to mixing and interbreeding between several populations Clinical distribution o Mutations- change in gene frequency due to accidental changes in number of structures of genes or chromosomes
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Small changes in DNA in meiosis occur because of solar radiation, radioactivity, drugs, etc.
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