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Anthro Study Guide 2

Anthro Study Guide 2 - Anthro Study Guide 2 Nabonidus king...

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Anthro Study Guide 2 Nabonidus- king of neobabylonia who excavated and rebuilt ruined temples of Babylon, considered an antiquarian Antiquarian- reconstruct past cultures Ciriaco- historian during Italian renessaince who translated latin inscriptions and promoted the studying of ancient Egyptian, greek, and roman cultures Schlieman o Discovered Troy o Father of Modern Archaelogy o Organized large scale excavation o Developed techniques Stratigrapgy Dating techniques Pottery analysis Artifact and data recording Found large amounts of treasure, but kept it to himself Jacques Boucher de Perther o Found crude stone tools and hand axes on French quarries in context with bones of extinct animals o Postulated the existence of very early hominids but was in conflict with church ideas Thomas Jefferson o Scientifically excavated a Native American burial ground o Wrote a scholarly work on his findings o Father of American Archaeology Taphonomy- how things become preserved in archaeological record o Trash o Catastrophe o Grave goods Context analysis- add additional environmental info o Matrix- matrix is rock, clay, or sand artifacts buried in o Floral- plant, seed, and pollen remains from a site diet, weather o Faunal- animal remains from a site diet, environmental conditions Shovel probing is involved in site survey Determining site stratigraphy is a part of site excavation Prehistoric archaeology- study of human material culture before written records Historic archaeology- study of human material culture in cultures with written records Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic o Paleolithic Simple tool complex and appendages Big game hunting, gathering, fishing Small groups fire Lower Paleolithic Oldowan tool complex o Pebble tools (choppers, hammers, stones) o Meat processing, wood working, animal skin
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o Associated with H. habilisa Acheulian tool complex o Biface hand axes, knives, scrapers, cleavers, o More complex and numerous o H.Erectus, H. Neanderthal, H. Sapiens Middle Paleolithic Evolution of tool types and manufacturing Levallois Core Techique Mousterian Tool o Small sharp flakes, spear points, scrapers, sharper hand axes o Bone tools o Burial rituals, body adornments o H. Neanderthal and H. Sapiens Upper Paleolithic Blade technology- varied, specialized, and artistically decorated tool traditions o Blade tools, long blade and spear points, harpoons, projectile points o Ivory, bone, and antler tools Venus figurines Cave paintings Transition from H. N to H. S o Mesolithic Change in paleoenvironment 75% of mammal groups became extinct Overkill theory o As human populations increased, humans became more efficient predators and hunted many species to extinction o Problems Some extinctions occurred before humans arrived Early hominids too few in number to have killed all the animals Climate change theory o
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