Ch.4 SG - Nutrition - Nutrition Study Guide (Ch. 4)...

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Nutrition Study Guide (Ch. 4) Chapter Four – CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates (CHO) Most abundant organic substances in the biosphere; compose 70% of the structure of plants Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Number of Carbon atoms to catergorize types of carbs Monosaccharides:  one sugar unit (glucose, fructose, galactose) Building block of all other carbs Glucose:  “Blood Sugar”, ALL CHOs are broken down or converted to glucose in intestines or liver before  used by the cells for energy Normal Fasting Blood Sugar:  70-100 mg/100mL plasma Moderately sweet Dextrose is another name for glucose; D5W (5% Dextrose in NS) IV produces 3.4 calories/gram Low Glucose Level (Hypoglycemia):  too much insulin; can cause BP to drop quickly and cycle begins  again If BP levels fall too low:  epi and glucagon are released to cause glycogen from liver to release  into bloodstream to raise BG levels Glycemic Index:  system of ranking foods; level to which a food raises blood sugar levels compared with a  reference food Glycemic Load:  total glycemic index effect of a mixed meal plan
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Nutrition Study Guide (Ch. 4) Fructose: “Honey Sugar”, sweetest of monosaccharides High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) used in soft drinks, canned foods and processed foods Readily convert fructose to glucose after ingestion Galactose:  (glucose and lactose); least sweet of monosaccharides Disaccarides:  two sugar units (sucrose, lactose, maltose)
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Ch.4 SG - Nutrition - Nutrition Study Guide (Ch. 4)...

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