final - Tricia Mittman 1a. 1 1b. As shown at the top of the...

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Tricia Mittman 1a. 1b. As shown at the top of the diagram, a person’s race and social class determine the amount of discrimination he or she face, which results in the amount of inequality they feel. This inequality then leads to residential segregation by both race, and amount of income earned (and ability to spend on housing). Historically, housing segregation is rooted in racism. The Federal Housing Administration used institutional racism practices to combat African American migration and protect the “character” of all white neighborhoods, such as redlining and restrictive covenants (Sergue, 1996, 182). Redlining ensured that individuals who wanted to buy homes in racially integrated areas were not approved for bank loans, encouraging homeowners to maintain all-white neighborhoods. Restrictive covenants in many property deeds outlawed the sale of homes to minorities, especially African Americans. These tactics made it impossible for blacks to move into traditionally white, middle class neighborhoods simply due to their race – no matter their financial situation. Eventually restrictive covenants were broken, resulting in white flight or floods of Caucasian people leaving the city for the suburbs. Consequently, many higher-end businesses followed their customers and left the city, resulting in predominantly African American 1
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Tricia Mittman neighborhoods with few jobs available. Due to insufficient transportation options, African Americans had to make due with the low-paying jobs accessible in their immediate proximity. Low paying jobs resulted in low-income families, and these families were indirectly forced to remain in poor neighborhoods. As we read in Sugrue, “Increasingly, they put pressure at the racial boundaries that confined them to the center city…those who were trapped in poor-paying jobs and thrown out of work remained confined in the decaying inner city neighborhoods,” (Sugrue, 1996, 188). This created low-income, high-crime areas where poorer people reside. So while race was the initial determinant in housing location, the resources available to residents in these areas cause these neighborhoods to still face inequality, though now on the grounds of their income and social class. Economically disadvantaged people have fewer housing options because they must live in areas that they can afford, regardless of the crime rates or resources available. Sugrue notes residents’ of inner city black neighborhoods frustration with “a growing number of poor people, rowdy people, hoodlums, and gang activity” (206). Poor areas with few resources have a lot of crime activity, often on the streets of the neighborhoods, such as drug using/selling, gangs, and violence. Children living in low-income homes experience and witness more conflict, disruption and violence (Sugrue, 1996, 111). Exposure to these activities negatively correlates with people’s ability to combat them, and often leads to participation in such activities. In “Crime
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final - Tricia Mittman 1a. 1 1b. As shown at the top of the...

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