zigbee report - INTRODUCTION OF MICROCONTROLLER BASIC...

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I NTRODUCTION OF MICROCONTROLLER : B ASIC MICROCONTROLLER B LOCK D IAGRAM : There are three busses involved in accessing memory: Address bus Data bus Control bus R EAD C YCLE : 1. CPU places address on address bus. 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid 3. Memory chip fetches data from location specified by the address and places on the data bus 4. Control signals CPU - data on data bus is valid 5. CPU takes data from data bus
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W RITE C YCLE : 1. CPU places address on address bus 2. Control signals memory - address on address bus is valid. 3. CPU places data on the data bus 4. Control signals memory - data on data bus is valid 5. Memory chip takes data from data bus and places it in the Location specified by the address B ASIC DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MICROPROCESSOR AND M ICROCONTROLLER : A microprocessor system consists of a microprocessor with memory, input ports and output ports connected to it externally. A microcontroller is a single chip containing a microprocessor, memory, input ports and output ports. Since all four blocks reside on the one chip, a microcontroller is much faster than a microprocessor system M EMORY : we can split memory into two types; RAM and ROM RAM stands for random access memory. The are two features of RAM which distinguish it from ROM. RAM is read/write - data can be written to and read from RAM. RAM is volatile - data is lost once the power to a RAM chip is lost. Random access refers to the fact that data from any location in the memory chip is accessible at any time (you simply put the desired address on the address bus). ROM stands for read only memory. As with RAM, it is random access but it differs from RAM in two ways:
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ROM, as the name suggests, is read only. You cannot write to a ROM chip. A ROM chip must be programmed, but once programmed, it cannot be (easily) changed ROM is non-volatile - when power is removed from the chip data is not lost. There are many types of ROM available; PROM, EPROM, EEPROM and Flash are the most common. M ICRO CONTROLLER 89 C 51: The 8051 is just one of the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers developed by intel. The design of each of the MCS-51 microcontrollers are more or less the same. The differences between each member of the family is the amount of on-chip memory and the number of timers. Phillips 89C51 contains a non-volatile FLASH program memory that is parallel programmable. Phillips 89C51, 8-bit Micro controller from MHS-51 Intel family, with 4K bytes of flash and 128 bytes of internal RAM had been used. It has a 40-pin configuration and other components of interfaced to its ports. The Micro controller takes input from the external sources and routes them to the appropriate devices as programmed in it. F EATURES : 89C51 Central Processing Unit On-chip FLASH Program Memory Speedup to 33 MHz Fully Static Operation RAM expandable externally up to 64 Kbytes Four interrupt priority levels Six interrupt sources Four 8-bit input output ports
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Full-duplex enhanced UART -Framing error detection -Automatic address recognition
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