Industrial Fault monitoring system

Industrial Fault monitoring system - Chapter -1...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter -1 Introduction To The Project 1 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM: Figure 1: Block Diagram 1.2 BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION: Block diagram mainly consists of Current transformer(CT) Potential transformer(PT) Signaling circuit A/D converter Temperature sensor Micro controller(ATMEGA8) 2 ASK-RF transmitter Encoder ASK-RF module ASK-RF Receiver Decoder ASK-RF module 1.2.1 Current Transformer (CT): A current transformer (CT) is a type of instrument transformer designed to provide a current in its secondary winding proportional to the alternating current flowing in its primary. Current transformers measure power flow and provide electrical inputs to power transformers and instruments. It produces either an alternating current or alternating voltage that is proportional to the measured current. The C.T. steps down the current to the level of micro controller. 1.2.2 Potential Transformer (PT): The primary winding of the P.T. is connected across the line carrying the voltage to be measured and the voltage circuit is connected across the secondary winding. The design of a potential transformer is quite similar to that of a power transformer but the loading of a potential transformer is always small, sometimes only a few Volt-amperes. The secondary is designed so that a voltage of 9 volts is delivered to the instrument load. 3 1.2.3 Signaling Circuit: It consists of both A/D converter and Temperature Sensor. The main operation of this circuit is that it is used to remove the negative peak of a sine wave by adding +5V so that the sine wave lies only in the positive peak only. The signal generator consists of Zenor diode which is operated at 4.3V. Signal generator consist of pins such as VCC, ground (G), current (I), voltage (V), DC off, Temperature (T). 1.2.3.1 Analog to Digital Converter: The ADC has a separate analog supply voltage pin, AV CC . It must not differ more than 0.3 V from V CC . The ADC contains a Sample and Hold circuit, which ensures that the input voltage to the ADC is held at a constant level during conversion. The voltage reference may be externally decoupled at the AREF pin by a capacitor for better noise performance. 1.2.3.2 Temperature Sensor: The LM35 series are precision integrated-circuit temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The LM35 thus has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large constant voltage from its output to obtain convenient 4 Centigrade scaling. The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming to provide typical accuracies of 14C at room temperature and 34C over a full 55 to +150C temperature range. Low cost is assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level. The LM35s low output impedance, linear output, and precise inherent calibration level....
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Industrial Fault monitoring system - Chapter -1...

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