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Linfield Reading Notes 250-267

Linfield Reading Notes 250-267 - LinfieldNotesp.250267...

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Linfield Notes p.250-267 20:10 Applications of Operant Conditioning: Behaviorists train organisms to develop learned habits Do so by means of a procedure called  Shaping by successive  approximations o We shape an organism’s response by reinforcing most responses that are  close to the desired behavior—then gradually decreasing our  reinforcement of the behaviors that are not exactly right Using this—skinner taught pigeons to play ping pong Premack Principle: We can positively reinforce a less frequently performed behavior with a more  frequently performed behavior Also called “grandma’s rule” o b/c grandma reminds us to finish our veggies before dessert can help us overcome schoolwork procrastination o reinforce yourself with things you want to do (watch tv, friends, ice cream)  and only allow them AFTER you’ve completed your hw Superstitious Behavior Never opening an umbrella inside not walking under a ladder, crossing the  steet when you see a black cat, etc. o All of these things are superstitions Many Americans are superstitious Superstitious behaviors: actions linked to reinforcement by sheer coincidence o No actual association btwn superstitious behavior and reinforcement Skinner claims—the operant conditioning accounts for many human  superstitions
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o Can produce supersitions in children Human superstitions are NOT entirely due to operant conditioning o Spread by word of mouth also o But operant conditioning is a big part of them Token Economies: Systems, often set up in psychiatric hospitals, for reinforcing appropriate  behaviors and extinguishing inappropriate ones Staff members reinforce patients who behave in a desire fashion—use  tokens, chips, points, or other  Secondary Reinforcers  o Secondary reinforcers— Neutral objects that patients can trade in for primary reinforcers(things  that are naturally pleadurable---fav food or drink)
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Linfield Reading Notes 250-267 - LinfieldNotesp.250267...

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