Psych Chapter 1 - Linfield Chapter 1: Science Versus...

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Linfield Chapter 1: Science Versus Popular Psychology: Common versus Uncommon Sense Popular Psychology Industry : a sprawling network of everyday sources of info about human behavior Naïve Realism: the belief that we see the world precisely as it is. We assume that “seeing is believing” and trust out intuitive perceptions of the world and ourselves. The Growth of Popular Psychology: Given American public unprecedented access to psychological knowledge But it is an explosion of misinformation o Ex: some self-help books have not even been tested to see if they actually work—some might even make psychological conditions worse—can be misleading and dangerous o EX: internet sites—thousands of them—contain incorrect or incomplete info—leads to the public being misinformed about mental illness and its treatment There are now thousands of different brands and medications that claim to be treatments for different disorders—some of them haven’t even been proven to work and could be harmful Good Information Provided: o On TV and radio and mags and self-help books: A lot of helful info is provided and the average American knows much more about the brain and psychological problems than 20 years ago Misinnformation: o Someimtes they are more concerned with telling a good story and the profit than actually conveying correct info Psychology is a Science: Science means having: o Communalism : willingness to share our findings with others o Disinterestedness : attempt to be objective when evaluating the evidence Confirmation Bias: tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypotheses and neglect or distort evidence that contradicts them o Scientists need to overcome this Belief Perseverance: tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them Scientists need to recognize when they’re wrong Process of revising and updating findings Prescription for humility—never claim to prove anything without clear evidence
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Scientific Skepticism: approach of evaluating all claims with an open mind, but insisting on persuasive evidence before accepting them o Not to be confused with Pathological skepticism: closed- mindedness—tendency to dismiss any claims that contradict our beliefs Not behaving scientifically means allowing motives and emotions to guide our evaluation of the evidence Oberg’s Dictum: o Premise that we should keep our minds open, but not so open that we believe virtually everything Power of Authority: o Most of us blindly accept claims made by authority figures because we trust that they are right o We accept things more from higher ranked people than we do from low ranked people Basic Principles of Critical Thinking: good examples on page 38 1. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence: The more a claim contradicts what we already know, the more persuasive the evidence for this claim must be before we should accept it 2. Falsifiability:
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2011 for the course PSYCH 111 taught by Professor Schreier during the Fall '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Psych Chapter 1 - Linfield Chapter 1: Science Versus...

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