Chapter 11 - Chapter 11: Making a L iving Adaptive Strategy...

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Chapter 11: Making a Living Adaptive Strategy : to describe a society’s system of economic production o Foraging o All humans were foragers until 10,000 years ago o Foragers can vary due to environmental variation—Arctic foragers have much less vegetation in their diet than tropical Despite all differences: all foraging economies share one feature: People rely on nature to make their living. o Many foragers were exposed to food production but didn’t adopt it, or they tried it and then abandoned it Modern Foragers: Live in nation-states and depend on government assistance In contact with food-producing neighbors Dissapearing rapidly as a way of life o Correlations: Correlate: Association or covariation between two or more variables Foraging Correlates: People who subsisted by hunting and gathering often lived in band-organized societies. Their basic social unit, the Band, was a small group of fewer than a hundred people all related by kinship or marriage.— families left to gather resources and then they regrouped for ceremonies Typical characteristic of foraging life: Mobility o Many changed bands for various reasons—you could marry outside the band and be in a different band All foragers have some kind of division based on gender—men hunt and fish and women gather and collect All foragers make social distinctions based on age—old people receive great respect—young value elders
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special knowledge—mostly egalitarian(contrasts in prestige are minor, based on age and gender) o Horticulture o Cultivation that makes intensive use of none of the factors of production: land, labor, capital, and machinery o Use simple tools such as hoes and digging sticks to grow crops o Involves slash and burn techniques—clear land by cutting dwn and burning forest or by setting fire to the grass—the vegetation is broken down and pests are killed and the ashes remain to fertilize the soil.—crops are then sown, tended, and harvested o Also called “shifting cultivation”—because the relationship between people and land is not permanent—often plots are abandoned because of soil exhaustion, but years later are returned to o Agriculture o Requires more labor than horticulture does because it uses land intensively and continuously. The greater labor demands associated with agriculture reflect its use in domesticated animals, irrigation, or terracing o Domesticated Animals: Many use animals as a means of production Transport, cultivating machines, manure o I r rigation: Horticulturists must wait for the rainy season— agriculturists can schedule planting in advance because they control water Irrigation makes it possible to cultivate a plot year after year
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It enriches the soil because the irrigated field is a unique ecosystem with several species of plants and animals whose waste fertilize the land
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2011 for the course ANTHRCUL 101 taught by Professor Kirsch during the Summer '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Chapter 11 - Chapter 11: Making a L iving Adaptive Strategy...

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