midterm study guide - STUDY GUIDE FOR PSYCH 242 MIDTERM...

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STUDY GUIDE FOR PSYCH 242 MIDTERM Wilhelm Wundt 1832-1920 Overview Father of Psychology Believed in introspection, but also one of first to use reaction time (type of experimental tactic) Published on language in 1911 Behaviorists respond to Wundt in an empirical way (observation, experience, experiment) Hypothesis about language Sentence (defined intuitively) is the primary unit of language “I filled the water with bottle” …Wundt believes that because there is understanding this is a sentence. Behavorists believe a word is the smallest unit, so this only works for the introspective view Production converts a thought into a sequential string of sounds Comprehension is the reverse (converts a sound into a thought) Interested in the process of production Wasn’t thinking about that brain too much Would say production and comprehensions are using the same parts of the brain. However it is not in reverse-just two separate processes using same part of brain What’s wrong with Wundt’s approach? Didn’t run experiments to control it Is introspection a reliable, replicable, objective tool for science? Doesn’t have same ability to report in journal, or ability to replicate results Subjective rather than objective Do hypotheses lead to any clear predications about behavior? Not observable or measurable (For example, you cant run experiments about sentence being primary unit) Constructs (ex. sentence) are not carefully defined Need to operationally define- he did NOT The stimuli/inputs for production and response/outputs for comprehension are neither well defined nor directly observable (ex. How can one develop a hypothesis and test it?) Would a different approach be more productive? Need to develop hypothesis that leads to clear predictions about behavior Link environmental conditions to observable behavior Need experimental techniques Behaviorism Overview Behaviorism was dominant 1927-1960 (Skinner, Pavlov) How often does a behavior occur and with what intensity? All behavior shaped by the environment using classical/operant conditioning Introspections devalued, no role for mental representations Under behaviorism, human are just like animals Easily influenced by behaviorism: The likelihood of saying hello to stranger on the street Classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov, physiologist
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Dog; salivating from bell UCS-food, UCR-salivate, CS-bell, CR-salivate Repeated pairing of neutral stimulus with natural stimulus, which results in neutral stimulus to cause natural reaction Relate to language: When someone says hello, you recognize immediately, can’t decide not to recognize, involuntary Do we learn language through paired association? **Automatic behavior, stimulus evokes response, comes FIRST
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midterm study guide - STUDY GUIDE FOR PSYCH 242 MIDTERM...

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