psych 242 final study guide - STUDY GUIDE FOR PSYCH 242...

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STUDY GUIDE FOR PSYCH 242 FINAL Phonology How do the sound systems of languages differ and how are they alike? Inventory of phonemes Syllable structure Phonotactics Suprasegmental phonology Stress Tone Phonemes Definition: sound categories that impact word identity Some acoustic difference (phonetic features) are ignored Languages differ in terms of which phonetic features are phonemic o Vowel nasalization is phonemic in French, but not in English o In English, aspiration of voiceless stops carry, depending on location in a constant cluster, but aspiration doesn’t affect phonemic category Spit vs. Pit Phonetic features (vowels vs. consonants) Consonants Manner of articulation: /b/ vs. /w/ How closed off is the air flow lungs out your mouth o Plosive/stop o Nasal o Trill o Tap/flap o Fricative o Lateral fricative o Approximant o Lateral approximant Place of articulation /b/, /d/, /g/
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Where is the place in your vocal tract where the airflow is most constricted o Bilabial (lips) o Labiodental o Dental o Alveolar: tip of the tongue o Postalveolar o Retroflex o Palatal o Velar o Uvular o Pharyngeal o Glottal Voicing /b/ vs. /p/ Voiced of voiceless Whether your focal folds are together or open Vowels Which part of the tongue is raised? /i/ vs. /u/ How high is it raised? /i/ vs. /ae/ (as in rat) Feature: referring to the value for any of the three categories (manner, place, voicing) above for consonants. For vowels, the
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relevant features are height (high, mid, low) and backness (front, central, back) Syllable structure Onset- beginning of syllable Possible onsets o Any single C except / / ŋ o Any stop C or voiceless fricative + /l/, /r/, or /w/ o Any C + /j/ ( pure, beauty ) o /s/ + voiceless stop or nasal ( stop, smell ) o /s/ + voiceless stop + /l/, /r/, /w/, or /j/ ( split ) Nucleus-the only mandatory part of the syllable. Usually a vowel, with few expectations Possible nucleus o Any V o /m/, /n/, /l/, & /r/ in certain situations Coda-elements after nucleus Rime-the nucleus and the coda (everything but the onset)
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Syllable-level & word-level rules o /j/ at the end of onset cluster must be followed by /u ː / or / ʊə / ( pure, few ) o / ə / does not occur in stressed syllables o / ʒ / does not occur in word-initial position in native English words although it can occur syllable-initial, e.g., luxurious / l ʌɡˈʒʊə ri ə s/ Phonotactic Rules Knowledge of how different phonemes fit together For example, your knowledge of English phonotactics lets you know this is not an English word: “bwlch” However, “drol” could easily be a word because the structure fits phonotactic rules Suprasegmental Phonology (stress, tone) Stress, tone, intonation Features which affect more than one segment, usually a syllable or a word Stress- a syllable that is pronounced more forcefully than others in a word Tone-pitch variations that make phonemic difference or affect the word What are the rhythmic units of the LG?
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