second half of psych 242 study guide

second half of psych 242 study guide - Bottom-up/Top-down...

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Bottom-up/Top-down Bottom-up Bottom up processing is any form of information processing that is guided by input, and proceeds in subsequent stages. In terms of linguistics, this would be like hearing a sentence, but missing some words. You are still able to piece together the meaning of final sentence without hearing all of the words. Top-down Top down processing is information processing guided by higher- level mental processes as we construct perceptions, drawing on our experiences and expectations. In terms of linguistics, this would be like hearing a whole sentence and then processing its meaning. How do we test whether word recognition is guided by top-down processing? Lexical ambiguity o They all rose. (FLOWER, STAND) o They saw the rose. (FLOWER STAND) o Everyone went to the ball. (DANCE, BOUNCE) o Everyone played with the ball. (DANCE, BOUNCE) Do we access both meanings, or just the appropriate one? Does frequency matter? Cues help us know if it is meant to be the verb or the noun Speech Errors Analyze breakdowns for clues to structure of the system: speech errors Logic similar to analyzing children’s mistakes Are they random? o If errors we random, they wouldn’t tell us anything o Goal is to look for patterns that can reveal something about underlying structure Taxonomy vs. Regularities Can analyze “natural” or “lab-induced” errors Freudian slips-proving unconscious window into desires Bush meant to say presents not prevents-only differ in one phoneme More likely to be produced is in a real word
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What is the unit involved? Phoneme Syllable or syllable component (e.g., onset cluster) Morpheme Word Phrase How deviated from target? Anticipation Perseveration Exchange Substitution Deletion Blend Information Classifying errors on what unit is involved Presents vs. prevents-word level or phoneme level? How far it is deviated of target Know what person is trying to say Notable regularities Units slip with like units Morphological and phonological accommodation (e.g. #1, 3, 5) Slips obey form-related constraints of the language (phono, morpho, syntactic), but often violate semantic constraints Word errors and sound errors have different distributional properties o Sound exchanges w/in phrase o Word exchanges across phrase o Sound exchanges oblivious to syntax cat of word o Word exchanges only occur between words of same syntax cat Lexical bias Like units slip with like units Example: roof of my mouf Phoneme errors Type of error: perseveration
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Sound errors vs. word/morpheme errors Semantic errors- Shared features activate semantic neighbors Phoneme errors- Phoneme-word feedback activates formal neighbors. Note that non-words like “dat” can’t be selected at this level. Mixed errors-
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second half of psych 242 study guide - Bottom-up/Top-down...

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