1-12 Genetics - Genetic Basis of Development Lecture2...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Genetic Basis of Development Lecture 2 January 12, 2011
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Lecture Overview 1. Goal : to understand what genes will and will  not tell us about developmental psychology 2. Basic terminology and concepts 3. Patterns of genetic inheritance  4. Video on the Human Genome Project 5. Gene-Environment interactions 6. Focus on the range of environments
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Terminology 1. Genotype : the complete set of genes  that comprise one’s heredity 2. Phenotype :  The physical,  behavioral, and psychological  features that result from the  interaction of one’s genes and the  environment. Human development is the result of genetic and  environmental interactions.
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Terminology continued Chromosome  – A threadlike strand located  in each cell’s nucleus that carries the  genes.                                                      There are 23 matching pairs of  chromosomes in each cell, including: § Autosomes  – regular pairs – 22 of  the 23 pairs                            § Sex chromosomes  - 23rd pair -  determine sex of the child Ø XX = Female Ø XY = Male Father’s sperm determines the sex
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Terminology continued Chromosomes are made of DNA.   § DNA  (deoxyribonucleic acid) – a double-helix  shaped molecule composed of 4 chemical  compounds  (adenine, thymine, guanine, and  cytosine)                               § gene  is a segment of DNA along the length of  the chromosome that contains the chemical  blueprint for making particular proteins § Proteins  – The building blocks of life.                 § Expression  – Genes must be “turned on” (often by  the environment) in order to form proteins.
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Terminology continued The order in which the chemical  compounds appear is the code   that determines what protein a  gene will make.                                 Humans have about 30,000  genes
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Putting it all together Chemical Compounds
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Genetic Concepts Most genes have two copies and they  appear on a chromosome pair.  Each  copy of the gene is called an allele.                              We get one copy from each parent
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1-12 Genetics - Genetic Basis of Development Lecture2...

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