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Unformatted text preview: Contemporary Advertising Vocabulary
Eleventh Edition William F. Arens Chapter 1: What is Advertising Today? Marketing Communications The various efforts and tools companies use to initiate and maintain communication with customers and prospects, including solicitation letters, newspaper ads, event sponsorships, publicity, telemarketing, statement stuffers, and coupons Advertising
The structural and nonpersonal communication of information, usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature, about products (goods and services) or ideas by identified sponsors through various media Consumers People who buy products for personal use Goods Tangible products such as suits, soap, and soft drinks Services A bundle of benefits that may or may not be physical, that are temporary in nature, and that come from the completion of a task Ideas Economic, political, religious, or social viewpoints that advertising may attempt to sell Product The particular good or service a company sells Medium An instrument or communications vehicle that carries or helps transfer a message from the sender to the receiver Mass Media Print or broadcast media that reach very large audiences. Mass media include radio, television, newspapers, magazines and billboards. Source In oral communication, this party formulates the idea, encodes it as a message, and sends it via some channel to the receiver Encoding Translating an idea or message into words, symbols, and illustrations Message In oral communication, the idea formulated and encoded by the source and sent to the receiver Channel Any medium through which an encoded message is sent to a receiver, including oral communication, print media, television and the Internet Receiver
In oral communication, this party decodes the message to understand it and responds by formulating a new idea, encodes it, and sends it back Decoding The interpretation of a message Feedback A message that acknowledges or responds to an initial message Noise The sender’s advertising message competing daily with hundreds of other commercial and noncommercial messages Sponsor
The company or organization ultimately responsible for the message and distribution of an advertisement. Although the sponsor is often not the author, the sponsor typically pays for the creation of the ad and its distribution Author In Stern’s communication model, a copywriter, an art director, or a creative group at the agency that is commissioned by the sponsor to create advertising messages Persona A real or imaginary spokesperson who lends some voice or tone to an advertisement or commercial Autobiographical Messages A style of advertising that utilizes the first person “I” to tell a story to the audience, “You” Narrative Messages Advertising in which a third person tells a story about others to an imagined audience Drama Message One of the three literary forms of advertising messages in which the characters act out events directly in front of an imagined empathetic audience Implied Consumers The consumers who are addressed by the ad’s persona. They are not real, but rather imagined but the ad’s creators to be ideal consumers acquiescing in whatever beliefs the text requires. They are, in effect, part of the drama of the ad. Sponsorial Consumers
A group of decision makers at the sponsor’s company or organization who decide if an ad will run or not, typically composed of executives and managers who have the responsibility for approving and funding a campaign Actual Consumers The people in the real world who comprise an ad’s target audience. They are the people to whom the sponsor’s message is ultimately directed. Marketing The process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that satisfy the perceived needs, wants, and objectives of individuals and organizations Process A planned series of actions or methods that take place sequentially, such as developing products, pricing them strategically, making them available to customers through a distribution network, and promoting them through sales and advertising activities Target Market The market segment or group within the market segment toward which all marketing activities will be directed Target Audience The specified group of individuals to whom the advertising message is directed Consumer Advertising Advertising directed at the ultimate consumer of the product, or at the person who will buy the product for someone else’s personal use Retail Advertising Advertising sponsored by retail stores and businesses Business Advertising Advertising directed at people who buy or specify goods and services for business use. Also called Business to Business Advertising or B2B Advertising Trade Advertising The advertising of goods and services to middlemen to stimulate wholesalers and retailers to buy goods for resale to their customers or for use in their own businesses. Professional Advertising Advertising directed at individuals who are normally licensed to operate under a code of ethics or set of professional standards Agricultural or Farm Advertising Advertising directed to farmers as businesspeople and to others in the agriculture business Image Advertising Type of advertising intended to create a particular perception of the company or personality for the brand Regular Price-Line Advertising A type of retail advertising designed to inform consumers about the services available or the wide selection and of quality of merchandise offered at regular prices Sale Advertising A type of retail advertising designed to stimulate the movement of particular merchandise or generally increase store traffic by placing the emphasis on special reduced prices Clearance Advertising A type of local advertising designed to make room for new product lines or new models or to get rid of slowmoving product lines, floor samples, broken or distressed merchandise, or items that are no longer in season Loss-Leader Advertising Advertising that promotes drastically discounted goods to create an impression of storewide low prices and thereby increase traffic in the store. Lossleader merchandise may be offered at or below retailer cost in order to encourage the sales of more profitable merchandise. Global Advertising Advertising used by companies that market their products, goods, or services throughout various countries around the world with messages that remain consistent. International Advertising Advertising aimed at foreign markets National Advertising Advertising used by companies that market their products, goods or services in several geographic regions throughout the country Regional Advertising Advertising used by companies that market their products, goods, or services in a limited geographic region Local Advertising Advertising by businesses within a city or country directed towards customers within the same geographical area Personal Selling A sales method based on persontoperson contact, such as by a salesperson at a retail establishment or by a telephone solicitator Product Advertising Advertising intended to promote goods and services; also a functional classification of advertising Nonproduct Advertising Advertising designed to sell ideas or a philosophy rather than products or services Noncommercial Advertising Advertising sponsored by or for a charitable institution, civic group, religious order, political organization, or some other nonprofit group to stimulate donations, persuade people to vote one way or another, or to bring attention to social causes Awareness Advertising Advertising that attempts to build the image of a product or familiarity with the name and package Action Advertising Advertising intended to bring about immediate action on the part of the reader or viewer Direct-Response Advertising An Advertising message that asks the reader, listener, or viewer to provide feedback straight to the sender. Directresponse advertising can take the form of direct mail, or it can use a wide range of other media, from matchbook covers or magazines to radio, TV, or billboards Sales Promotion A direct inducement offering extra incentives all along the marketing route from manufacturers through distribution channels to customers to accelerate the movement of the product from the producer to the consumer Public Relations
The management functions that focuses on the relationships and communications that individuals and organizations have with other groups (called publics) for the purpose of creating mutual goodwill. The primary role of public relations is to manage a company’s reputation and help build consent for its enterprises. Public Relations Activities Publicity, press agentry, sponsorships, special events, and public relations advertising used to create public awareness and credibility at low cost for the firm Marketing PR The use of public relations activities as a marketing tool Public Relations Advertising Advertising that attempts to improve a company’s relationship with its publics (labor, government, customers, suppliers, etc.) Collateral Materials Promotional tools other than media advertising to communicate information about themselves in their brands, including fliers, brochures, catalogs, posters, sales kids, product specification sheets, instruction booklets, etc. ...
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- Spring '08