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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 12 Notes The Medieval Synthesis (1215-1340) I. Syntheses and failures A. The Church tried to legislate for all an to eliminate all who didnt fit 1. But many didnt, wouldnt, or couldnt, fit: heretics, Jews, lepers B. Scholars, musicians, poets, artists tried to harmonize discord 1. But contradictions, controversies and tensions remained C. Kings and popes tried to control all 1. But new institutions gave voice to opposition 2. New crisesthe Mongols, famineposed new problems that could not be solved with old formulas II. The Churchs Attempts to control and regulate A. Fourth Lateran council (1215) 1. Called by Innocent III and controlled by him 2. He was the pope who admitted the Franciscans into the fold and ratified the Fourth Crusade 3. The provisions of the Fourth Lateran were meant to create a society united under Gods law B. Decisions on the Sacraments at Fourth Lateran 1. All Christians were to attend Mass and confess to a priest at least once a year 2. The Eucharist was defined as Christs body and blood under the forms of bread and whine, the bread and whine having been transubstantiated by Gods poweronly a priest can effect this sacrament C. Marriage was sanctified as a sacrament 1. Priests were to call out banns (announcements of marriage) to see if there were any impediments D. Labeling the Jews 1. Fourth Lateran required Jews to wear something to advertise their otherness 1. Badges (round or rectangular), pointed hats E. Exploiting the Jews 1. Jews were vital to monarchs. They gave loans to Christians. (Increasingly, they were allowed only this one occupation) 1. In England, the exchequer of the Jews collected unpaid debts after the lender died 2. Jews were taxed by monarchs everywhere F. Expelling the Jews 1. Jews were attacked by Christians partially orchestrated by elites in debt to Jews 2. Expelling Jews allowed lords to confiscate Jewish property2....
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- Fall '08