Unit I lecture note outline

Unit I lecture note outline - I. BLOOD (Chapter 17) A....

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I. BLOOD (Chapter 17) A. Introduction 1. Objectives 2. Misc. Terms B. Physical Characteristics 1. red body fluid 2. viscous (internal friction) [4.5 – 5.5 viscosity] 3. temp. = 38 o C or 100.4 o F 4. pH = 7.35-7.45 5. salt [ ] -- 0.85-0.9% 6. 8% of body weight 7. volume male = 5-6 L female = 4-5 L C. Functions 1. Transports (distribution) 2. Regulates (regulation) 3. Protects against (protection) D. Components 1. Formed Elements ( % ) a. Erythrocytes b. Leukocytes 1) Granular Leukocytes a) Neutrophils b) Eosinophils c) Basophils 2) Agranular Leukocytes a) Lymphocytes b) Monocytes c. Thrombocytes 2. Plasma ( % of whole blood) 90% water 8% protein (and 100+ different dissolved solutes) E. Erythrocytes 1. Functions - transports oxygen - carbonic anhydrase catalyzes reaction between carbon dioxide and water carbonic anhydrase CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 H + + HCO 3 - carbonic acid bicarbonate ion - buffer
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2. Size and Shape - microns (µm) x 2 µm - disc - no - spectrin 3. Concentrations males: 5.2 mill./cubic mm females: 4.5 mill./cubic mm - make/destroy about - lifespan about 4. Hemoglobin (Hb) million molecules/RBC a. Formation of Hemoglobin - 4 polypeptide chains (globins) 2 α chains 2 β chains and 4 heme groups (each heme group has 1 iron atom) b. Iron Metabolism - total Fe 4 gm (65% in Hb) c. Quantity of Hemoglobin in the RBC 250-280 mill. molecules Hb/RBC cell d. Hematocrit Packed Cell Volume = PCV 5. Production of RBC hematopoiesis, hemopoiesis, erythropoiesis a. Areas of the body that produce RBC - early embryonic life - middle trimester - later gestation to age 5 - after age 20
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b. Genesis of the RBC (erythropoiesis) 6. Regulation of RBC Production a. Tissue oxygenation as the basic regulator of RBC production -hypoxia b. Erythropoietin ( ) release into blood hypoxic kidneys renal erythropoietic factor plasma protein to split away glycoprotein acts on erythropoietin molecule erythropoietin bone marrow erythropoiesis c. Vitamins Needed for RBC Formation -Vit. B 12 (cyanocobalamin) for ; deficiency results in nuclear maturation/division problems…. maturation failure (macrocytes) - (due to gastric mucosa not producing intrinsic factor) (parietal cells produce HCl and intrinsic factor) - Folic Acid (also for DNA synthesis) -Folic Acid 7. Destruction of RBC (________ days lifespan) -bilirubin beliverdin bilirubin goes to liver into bile digestive tract urobilinogen (stercobilin, a brown pigment of feces) 8. The Anemias: -one of the major effects of anemia is a greatly increased work load on the heart. a. Blood loss anemia (hemorrhagic anemia)
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b. Aplastic Anemia - lack of c. Maturation failure anemia - Vit def. (lack of – pernicious anemia) - (or folic acid def.) d. Hemolytic anemia (RBC rupture prematurely) - caused by abnormal Hb, transfusion of mismatched blood, bacterial/parasitic infections) 1) Hereditary spherocytosis 2) Sickle cell anemia 3) Thalassemia (or Cooley’s anemia or Mediterranean anemia) 4) Erythroblastosis fetalis 5) others 9. Polycythemia
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This note was uploaded on 02/13/2011 for the course BIOL 228 taught by Professor Marilynkoob during the Spring '10 term at Boise State.

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Unit I lecture note outline - I. BLOOD (Chapter 17) A....

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