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Unit I lecture note outline

Unit I lecture note outline - I BLOOD(Chapter 17 A...

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I. BLOOD (Chapter 17) A. Introduction 1. Objectives 2. Misc. Terms B. Physical Characteristics 1. red body fluid 2. viscous (internal friction) [4.5 – 5.5 viscosity] 3. temp. = 38 o C or 100.4 o F 4. pH = 7.35-7.45 5. salt [ ] -- 0.85-0.9% 6. 8% of body weight 7. volume male = 5-6 L female = 4-5 L C. Functions 1. Transports (distribution) 2. Regulates (regulation) 3. Protects against (protection) D. Components 1. Formed Elements ( % ) a. Erythrocytes b. Leukocytes 1) Granular Leukocytes a) Neutrophils b) Eosinophils c) Basophils 2) Agranular Leukocytes a) Lymphocytes b) Monocytes c. Thrombocytes 2. Plasma ( % of whole blood) 90% water 8% protein (and 100+ different dissolved solutes) E. Erythrocytes 1. Functions - transports oxygen - carbonic anhydrase catalyzes reaction between carbon dioxide and water carbonic anhydrase CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 H + + HCO 3 - carbonic acid bicarbonate ion - buffer
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2. Size and Shape - microns (µm) x 2 µm - disc - no - spectrin 3. Concentrations males: 5.2 mill./cubic mm females: 4.5 mill./cubic mm - make/destroy about - lifespan about 4. Hemoglobin (Hb) million molecules/RBC a. Formation of Hemoglobin - 4 polypeptide chains (globins) 2 α chains 2 β chains and 4 heme groups (each heme group has 1 iron atom) b. Iron Metabolism - total Fe 4 gm (65% in Hb) c. Quantity of Hemoglobin in the RBC 250-280 mill. molecules Hb/RBC cell d. Hematocrit Packed Cell Volume = PCV 5. Production of RBC hematopoiesis, hemopoiesis, erythropoiesis a. Areas of the body that produce RBC - early embryonic life - middle trimester - later gestation to age 5 - after age 20
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b. Genesis of the RBC (erythropoiesis) 6. Regulation of RBC Production release into blood hypoxic kidneys renal erythropoietic factor plasma protein to split away glycoprotein acts on erythropoietin molecule erythropoietin bone marrow erythropoiesis - (due to gastric mucosa not producing intrinsic factor) (parietal cells produce HCl and intrinsic factor) - Folic Acid (also for DNA synthesis) -Folic Acid 7. Destruction of RBC (________ days lifespan) -bilirubin beliverdin bilirubin goes to liver into bile digestive tract urobilinogen (stercobilin, a brown pigment of feces) 8. The Anemias: -one of the major effects of anemia is a greatly increased work load on the heart.
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- Vit def. (lack of – pernicious anemia) - (or folic acid def.) 1) Hereditary spherocytosis 2) Sickle cell anemia 3) Thalassemia (or Cooley’s anemia or Mediterranean anemia) 4) Erythroblastosis fetalis 5) others 9. Polycythemia (____________ blood cells) F. Leucocytes - have , lack , mobile 1. Types and Numbers - < 1% of total blood volume - 7000 WBC/mm 3 (4,800-10,800 WBC/mm 3 ) a. Granular Leucocytes 1) Polymorphonuclear neutrophils 50-70% 2) Polymorphonuclear eosinophils 2-4%
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3) Polymorphonuclear basophils 0.5 - 1 % b.
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