The Immune System - IMMUNE SYSTEM Pathogen agents that...

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IMMUNE SYSTEM Pathogen – agents that cause disease (From the Greek: “Pathos” = suffering; “gen” = origin of) Two lines of defense: - non- specific (similar response to all infections) - specific = “immune system” Non-specific: - physical barriers (surface features like skin) - does not involve specific response to specific pathogen: - skin (dry; dead; competition from other microbes…) - mucous lining: traps stuff - cilia (lungs): moves material along - enzymes in tears and saliva help break down pathogens Internal non-specific defense: - white blood cells: a class of blood cells critical to immune function - phagocytes (“cell eating”) - neutrophils – eat bacteria and viruses - macrophages – “large eater” - “NK” (natural killer cells) - attack virus-infected cells - interferon - viral attack stimulated release - bind to un-infected cells; produce broad-spectrum anti-viral response Other familiar non-specific responses: - inflammation – localized tissue response (swelling/redness/pain) - causes vasodilation - increased leakiness from capillaries
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The Immune System - IMMUNE SYSTEM Pathogen agents that...

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