Handout - Protein Synthesis

Handout - Protein Synthesis - Protein Synthesis 1 2 What is...

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Protein Synthesis 1. What is Crick’s central dogma? DNA makes RNA which specifies protein 2. DNA is double stranded and RNA is single stranded. 3. In terms of bases, what is the difference between DNA and RNA? DNA has thymine and RNA has uracil (both pair with adenine) 4. What are the three types of RNA and what are their functions? mRNA: (messanger RNA) acts as the messenger that the code for proteins from DNA in the nucleus and carries it to a ribosome in the cytosol tRNA: (transfer RNA) transfers amino acids from cytosol to growing protein on a ribosome rRNA: (ribosomal RNA) structural molecule that partially makes up a ribosome (protein is the other part) 5. Transcription and translation are the two parts of protein synthesis. 6. Transcription is the part in which information from DNA is coped onto mRNA . This process occurs in the nucleus . 7. Translation is the part in which the information on the mRNA is used to create proteins . This process occurs in the cytosol (on a ribosome). 8. If DNA never leaves the nucleus, and DNA contains the instructions to make proteins, how can proteins be made outside the nucleus? mRNA acts as the intermediate or messanger. It copies the instructions from DNA and takes it into the cytoplasm where the ribosomes are waiting to make proteins 9. What is the “message” carried by mRNA? Sequence of nucleotides—3 nucleotides make up a codon which specifies an amino acid (the building blocks of proteins) 10. What is a codon?
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