Lecture 15 - EEL 4930 Audio Engineering Year 1877 1883 1895...

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EEL 4930 Audio Engineering Lecture 15 Page 1 of 6 Audio Recording/Transmission Media (from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audio_format ) Year Media formats Recording formats 1877 Phonograph cylinder Mechanical analog; "hill-and-dale" grooves, vertical stylus motion 1883 Music roll Mechanical digital (automated musical instruments) 1895 Gramophone record Mechanical analog; lateral grooves, horizontal stylus motion 1898 Wire recording Analog; magnetization; no "bias" 1925 Electrical Cut Record Mechanical analog; electrically cut from amplified microphone signal, lateral grooves, horizontal stylus motion, discs at 7", 10", 12", most at 78 rpm 1930s Reel-to-Reel, Magnetic Tape Analog; magnetization; "bias" dramatically increases linearity/fidelity, tape speed at 30 ips, later 15 ips with NAB equalization; refined speeds: 7 1/2 ips, 3 3/4 ips, 1 7/8 ips 1930s Electrical transcription Mechanical analog; electrically cut from amplified microphone signal, high fidelity sound, lateral or vertical grooves, horizontal or vertical stylus motion, most discs 16" at 33 1/3 rpm 1948 Vinyl Record Analog, with pre-emphasis and other equalization techniques (LP, RIAA); lateral grooves, horizontal stylus motion; discs at 7" (most 45 rpm), 10" and 12" (most 33 1/3 rpm) 1957 Stereophonic Vinyl Record Analog, with pre-emphasis and other equalization techniques. Combination lateral/vertical stylus motion with each channel encoded 45 degrees to the vertical. 1962 4-Track (Stereo-Pak) Analog, 1 / 4 inch wide tape, 3 3 / 4 inches/sec, endless loop cartridge. 1963 Compact Cassette Analog, with bias, preemphasis, 0.15 inch wide tape, 1 7 / 8 inches/sec. 1970: introduced Dolby noise reduction . 1965 8-Track (Stereo-8) Analog, 1 / 4 inch wide tape, 3 3 / 4 inches/sec, endless loop cartridge. 1969 Microcassette Analog, 1 / 8 inch wide tape, used generally for note-taking, mostly mono, some stereo. 2.4 cm/s or 1.2 cm/s. 1969 Mini-cassette Analog, 1 / 8 inch wide tape, used generally for note-taking, 1.2 cm / s 1970 Quadraphonic 8-Track (Quad-8) (Q8) Analog, 1 / 4 inch wide tape, 3 3 / 4 inches/sec, 4 Channel Stereo, endless loop cartridge. 1971 Quadraphonic Vinyl Record (CD-4) (SQ Matrix) 1975 Betamax Digital Audio ' Dolby Stereo ' cinema surround sound 1976 Elcaset
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EEL 4930 Audio Engineering Lecture 15 Page 2 of 6 Year Media formats Recording formats 1978 Laserdisc 1982 Compact Disc (CD-DA) PCM 1985 Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF) 1985 Sound Designer (by Digidesign ) 1987 Digital Audio Tape (DAT) 1991 MiniDisc (MD) ATRAC 1992 Digital Compact Cassette (DCC) 1992 WAVEform (WAV) Dolby Digital surround cinema sound 1993 Digital Theatre System (DTS) Sony Dynamic Digital Sound (SDDS) 1995 MP3 1997 DVD Dolby Digital 1997 DTS-CD DTS Audio 1999 DVD-Audio 1999 Super Audio CD (SACD) 1999 Windows Media Audio (WMA) 1999 The True Audio Lossless Codec (TTA) 2000 Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC) 2001 Advanced audio coding (AAC) 2002 Ogg Vorbis 2003 DualDisc 2004 Apple Lossless (ALE or ALAC) 2005 HD DVD 2005 OggPCM 2006 Blu-Ray
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This note was uploaded on 02/08/2011 for the course EEL 4930 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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Lecture 15 - EEL 4930 Audio Engineering Year 1877 1883 1895...

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