EDEC 340 final exam

EDEC 340 final exam - Motor Skills Physical Growth and...

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Motor Skills Physical Growth and Motor Skills Average size of newborn o Just over 7 lbs. o About 20 in. long Weight has doubled by 5 months and triples by 1 year By end of second year, most children are about 3 feet tall Parts of the body grow at different rates At birth— o The head is ¼ of the entire body o Legs are about 1/3 of the body At age two— o The head is 1/5 of the body o Legs are ½ of body Rapid growth provides challenges Patterns of motor development Cephalocaudal principle: the sequence in which the fastest growth occurs at the top—the head; growth from top to  bottom Proximodistal principle: sequence where growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities Brain growth and motor development At birth, the brain weighs 25% of its adult weight 90% by age 3 Adult size by age 6 o Specific areas continue to develop Number of brain cells does not increase throughout life The number of connections between brain cells increase Myelinization: the process of encasing axons with a myelin sheath that increases the speed of processing info Current brain research Movement develops as a result of nature and nurture More neural connections and experience foster more coordination and stronger muscles Increased myelinization influences fine motor skills Experience impacts the brains circuitry Large Motor Skills Large muscles and big movements Locomotion o The ability to move from one place to another Small motor skills Development of eyes, mouth, speech organs, bladder, rectum, feet, toes, hands, and fingers. Manipulation---development of hands and fingers Fostering motor development in infants Allow freedom of movement Allow opportunities for practice Allow infants to do it themselves! Facilitate motor development, don’t push it Children with special needs Rate and sequence may be slower or more divergent. Early reflexes are important indicators. Motor development may be influenced by: o Visual impairments
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o Brain impairments (cerebral palsy) o Sometimes cause is not understood Early intervention is key o Play experiences o Practice time Cognitive Development How do children think? Active involvement Constructivism: children build their own knowledge How do infants develop knowing and understanding? They perceive information through their senses Explore the world with their bodies o Mouthing o Grasping o Reaching Infants refine these skills very quickly They develop language skills to label, categorize, and remember their experiences Piaget Sensorimotor stage (0-2) o The coordination of senses/perception and muscle movements o This is the beginning of thinking Comes with the beginning of language and the ability to pretend Four Factors that influence the construction of knowledge Maturation-- nature Experience-- nurture
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EDEC 340 final exam - Motor Skills Physical Growth and...

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