Lec15_Audition2 - Audition II Lecture 15 Chapter 9, Part II...

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Audition II Jonathan Pillow Perception (PSY 323) The University of Texas at Austin Lecture 15 Chapter 9, Part II
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What determines speed of sound? speed of sound stiffness (or “bulk modulus”) density faster in stiffer materials (e.g., steel vs. soft iron) slower in denser materials (cold vs. hot air) full story is a bit more complex than this: sound in liquids and solids travels by “shear” waves as well as compression waves. in plasma: (duh!)
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Summary of Part 1 sound = pressure waves caused by movement, vibration amplitude / intensity (related loudness) frequency (related to pitch) Sound Pressure Level (SPL) and decibels (dB) Fourier analysis - breaking sound into sum of sine waves power spectrum - sound energy at each frequency timbre - quality of sound harmonics (integer multiples of a “fundamental” frequency sine wave) harmonic stack
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Part 2: The Auditory System
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Basic Structure of the Mammalian Auditory System How are sounds recognized by the auditory system? Sense of hearing evolved over millions of years Many animals have very different hearing capabilities e.g., dogs can hear higher-frequency sounds and elephants can hear lower-frequency sounds than humans can
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Figure 9.10 Structures of the human ear (Part 3) collects and transforms sound 3 bones: ampliFes sound transduces sound (i.e., converts mechanical energy to neural responses)
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Basic Structure of the Mammalian Auditory System Outer ear Sound first collected from environment by the pinnae Sound waves funneled by the pinnae into the ear canal length and shape of ear canal enhances certain frequencies The main purpose of the ear canal is to insulate the structure at its end—the tympanic membrane
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Pinna size and shape vary greatly
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Basic Structure of the Mammalian Auditory System Tympanic membrane : The eardrum; a thin sheet of skin at the end of the outer ear canal. Vibrates in response to sound Common myth: Puncturing eardrum will make you deaf In most cases eardrum will heal itself However, possible to damage it beyond repair
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Figure 9.10 Structures of the human ear (Part 3) collects and transforms sound 3 bones: ampliFes sound transduces sound (i.e., converts mechanical energy to neural responses)
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Basic Structure of the Mammalian Auditory System Middle ear
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Basic Structure of the Mammalian Auditory System Middle ear Tympanic membrane (eardrum): border between outer and middle ear middle ear consists of three tiny bones, ossicles, that amplify and transmit sounds to the inner eardrum Ossicles : The smallest bones in the body Malleus : Receives vibrations from the eardrum Incus : The middle ossicle Stapes : Connected to the incus on one end and the oval window of the cochlea on the other Oval window is border between middle and inner ear
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Lec15_Audition2 - Audition II Lecture 15 Chapter 9, Part II...

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