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Lec17_Audition_Chap10B - Auditory Perception(Chapter 10...

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Auditory Perception (Chapter 10, Part II) Jonathan Pillow Perception (PSY 323)The University of Texas at Austin Lecture 17
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consequences of age-related reductions in high-requency sensitivity 1. Ringtones your professor can ʼ t hear 2. “dispersion devices” for loitering youths - introduced in UK despite some debate over ethics / legality.
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Sound Localization Problem with using ITDs and ILDs for sound localization: Cone of confusion : A region of positions in space where all sounds produce the same ITDs and ILDs Q : where is the cone of confusion for a point directly in front of your head?
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Experiments by Wallach (1940) demonstrated this problem Sound source • circular screen presents moving grating • subjects feel themselves to be moving • incorrectly attribute sound source to above or below them, (due to cone of confusion)
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Sound Localization Overcoming the cone of confusion Turning the head can disambiguate ILD/ITD similarity
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Head-related transfer function (HRTF) describes how pinnae, ear canals, head, and torso change the intensity of sounds with different frequencies as the sound location changes Each person has his/her own HRTF (based on his/her own body) and uses it to help locate sounds
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HRTF for one sound source location (30° to left, 12° above horizontal) HRTF: can be measured with microphone in ear canal some frequencies attenuated; others amplified
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HRTF varies with sound source elevation (& azimuth) provides information about source location in 3D
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Head-related transfer function (HRTF) Can learn a new HRTF in about 6 weeks (shown experimentally using inserted artificial pinna) Old HRTF is stored (can return to old one instantaneously) Hofman et al 1998 : inserted plastic molds into pinnae, altering subjects’ HRTFs sound localization performance abruptly degraded Findings:
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