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Lec19_Music.Touch1 - Music(Chap 11 Intro to...

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Music (Chap 11) Intro to Somatosensation (Chap 12) Jonathan Pillow Perception (PSY 323) The University of Texas at Austin Lecture 19
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Music Universal: found across cultures distinctive of cultural identity strong emotional effects strong physiological effects Pythagoras: Numbers and music intervals Strong link between music and mathematics
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Harmonics Series of integer multiples of some fundamental frequency Fundamental: Lowest frequency of harmonic spectrum Auditory system is acutely sensitive to natural relationships between harmonics Why do they occur? Natural objects tend to vibrate at multiple “resonant frequencies” most vibrations die down, but some persist because their wavelength is naturally reinforced by the object ʼ s physical properties
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Example: guitar string Fundamental F1 (1st harmonic) 2nd harmonic F2 (2 x F1) 3rd harmonic F3 (3 x F1)
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Harmonics in speech formants: F1, F2, F3... • determine vowel sounds
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The sounds of music (i.e. “pitch”) extend across a frequency range from about 25 to 4200 Hz • 7 octaves hard to identify notes (even octave relationships) above this limit
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Musical Intervals Octave : frequencies having a ratio of 2:1 Example: Middle C (C 4 ) has a fundamental frequency of 261.6 Hz; notes that are one octave from middle C: 130.8 Hz (C 3 ) (below) 523.2 Hz (C 5 ) (above)
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Helix showing two characteristics of musical pitch: 1) tone height - increasing with frequency 2) tone chroma - which note within a scale (determines “feel” of note)
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Helix showing two characteristics of musical pitch: Octave determines pitch more strongly than frequency C 3 (130.8 Hz) sounds more similar to C 4 (261.6 Hz) than to E 3 (164.8 Hz) There is more to musical pitch than just frequency!
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Chords Certain combinations are considered pleasing, or “consonant” G Major Chord,
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