97_09_LB_PopGen1

97_09_LB_PopGen1 - Bio 97 Population/Gene Pool Population...

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1 Population Genetics I ©1999-2007 Lee Bardwell Bio 97 Population/Gene Pool Population = group of organisms of the same species living in the same geographical area Gene pool = all alleles in population ©1999 Lee Bardwell Genotype frequency = proportion of individuals in a population with a specific genotype Allele frequency = proportion of alleles in a population ©1999 Lee Bardwell We’d like to know… Relationship between allele frequencies and genotype frequencies How to predict what AF’s and GF’s will be in future generations We need a theory
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2 Developed a simple mathematical model of the transmission of alleles from generation to generation To understand this model you need to know: 1 X 1 = 1 1 X a = a Simple high-school algebra One gene (Arrogance), 2 alleles A (dominant allele) a (recessive allele) Genotype Phenotype AA, Aa arrogant aa humble ©2005 Lee Bardwell Hardy-Weinberg Equation p = frequency of allele A (dominant allele) q = a (recessive allele) Example - Gene pool with 700 A and 300 a alleles. p = A/(A+a) = 700/(700+300) = 0.7 q = a/(A+a) = 300/(700+300) = 0.3 ©2005 Lee Bardwell or wild-type { One gene, 2 alleles Allele freqs NOTE : p + q = 1 If we know the allele freqs in a given generation And we assume random mating Then we can calculate the genotype freqs in the next generation
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3 A population mates p 2 AA a Female gametes Male gametes ©1999 Lee Bardwell A A q p a p q pq Aa q 2 aa pq Aa (p+q) 2 = p 2 +2pq+q 2 = 1 Genotype freq. of aa genotype
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97_09_LB_PopGen1 - Bio 97 Population/Gene Pool Population...

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