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Unformatted text preview: What Is Culture?
Cultural Factors in Public Health Lecture 1 1 What Is Culture? System System of shared values, beliefs, behaviors, norms beliefs, norms (VBBN) (VBBN) Used to cope with the world and Used each other each Passed between generations Passed through learning
2 Values Ideas of right and wrong examples of right loyalty to nation loyalty sense of duty sense examples abuse of wrong of authority cowardliness
3 Beliefs A view of reality shared by a group examples: relationship appropriate justification between gods and humans gender roles of government powers 4 Behaviors Observable patterns of action examples: body language gestures, postures, facial expressions group behaviors seating, speech, table manners dress clothing style, daily vs. festive
5 Norms Range of permissible behaviors Range established by the group established expected behaviors range of tolerance examples: dress dress manner of greeting manner 6 Roadblocks Expecting alien culture to “mirror” your own Distorted cultural lenses stereotypes biases culture shock Effects on mission misunderstandings impaired judgment poor decisions
7 Cultural Lenses Stereotypes
Generalizations about a group Positive and negative Biases
Prejudices that impair judgment Positive and negative Culture shock
Adverse reaction to an alien environment Real emotional and physical effects 8 Effects on Mission False expectations of alien culture
Faulty planning Surprise and anxiety Misinterpretation of actions Inappropriate reaction 9 Discussion Exercise Behaviors and symbols can indicate Behaviors the values, beliefs and norms of an individual, society or nation. individual, What do these symbols mean to you What inside of American Culture? inside 10 Discussion Exercise 11 Discussion Exercise 12 Discussion Exercise 13 Discussion Exercise 14 Discussion Exercise 15 Conclusion Understanding VBBN helps predict actions. Understanding VBBN “Mirroring” alien culture leads to false Mirroring” expectations and roadblocks. expectations Minimizing roadblocks increases likelihood Minimizing of mission success. of 16 Ethnic Group or Culture Group Group The cultural heritage, or aspects of The culture, that a group shares and attempts to hand down from one generation to the next through learning. next Info taken from: The Four Skills of Cultural Diversity Competence, by Mikel Info Hogan-Garcia Hogan-Garcia 12 Aspects of Culture or Ethnicity 12
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. History-time period and conditions under which a group -time migrated or immigrated. migrated Social Status Factors – education, occupation, income Social Group Interaction Patterns: Intra-group (within Intra-group group relations) and Inter-group (between-group relations) group Value Orientation – standards by which members of a Value culture judge their personal actions and those of others. culture Language and Communication: Verbal and Nonverbal Family Life Processes – gender roles, family dynamics Family gender Healing Beliefs and Practices – attitudes and beliefs about health. health. Religion – spiritual beliefs and practices Art and Expressive Forms – art, music, stories, dance, etc. Diet/Foods – preferred food eaten by groups. Recreation – activities, sports for leisure, etc. Clothing – types, styles, and extent of body coverings. Personal Culture – Core Identity Identity Includes everything an individual finds Includes meaningful, beliefs, values, perceptions, assumptions, and framework about reality. assumptions, Developed through social interaction with Developed family and others in your environment. family Cultural Competence Skill Areas Cultural Awareness and Acceptance of Differences Self-Awareness Dynamics of Difference Knowledge of Client’s Culture Adaptation of Skills Self-Awareness Self-Awareness “It is impossible to appreciate the impact It of culture on the lives of others, particularly clients, if one is out of touch with his or her own cultural background.” with Self-Awareness Self-Awareness “Many people never acknowledge how Many their day-to-day behaviors have been shaped by cultural norms and values and reinforced by families, peers, and social institutions. How one defines ‘family’, identifies desirable life goals, views problems, and even says hello are all influenced by the culture in which one functions” (Cross, 1988, p.2). functions” Self-Awareness Self-Awareness Requires self-knowledge of own culture in Requires order to know when cultural limits are likely to be pushed, foreseeing potential areas of tension, and conflict with specific client groups. client http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WN3OCT2g http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gIrhRSwF9U 24 Discussion Discussion Why become self aware? Why become culturally competent? What aspects of American culture promote What health and well being? health What aspects of American culture are What limiting and potentially detrimental to health and well being? health 25 Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism The belief that one’s own group or culture is The superior to all other groups or cultures. superior The tendency of most people to use their own The way of life as a standard for judging others; now also indicates the belief, on the part of most individuals, that their race, culture, society, etc., are superior to all others are Can be an unconscious belief Ethnorelativsm Ethnorelativsm
These people have gone from being neutral about difference These to being positive. They not only accept cultural differences, but are willing and able to adjust their own behavior to conform to different norms. They are able to empathize with people from different cultures. In many ways, they become what is known as bi cultural or multi cultural, effortlessly adjusting their behavior to suit the culture of the people they're with, "style switching," in other words. They do not give up their own or birth culture's values and beliefs, but they do integrate aspects of other cultures into it. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ymMBEwtRZOg http:// Things to consider Things Is culture contextual or experiential? Is Do people influence culture or does Do culture influence people? culture Why does this matter? 28 Culture and Health Health A case study of centenarians 30% in perfect health, 75% female, serene 4 behaviors: Diet, exercise, relationships, behaviors: adaptability adaptability 4 defining features: lean, spiritual, defining geographic, familial longevity geographic, 29 ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/09/2011 for the course PUBLIC HEA 280.375 taught by Professor Furr-holden during the Fall '11 term at Johns Hopkins.
- Fall '11